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OVERVIEW OF THE COLLECTION

Title: Washington National Cathedral Stained Glass Formulae Collection

Collection Dates: 1926-1936

Extent and Forms of Material: 9.3 cubic feet (29 boxes)

Creator: Lawrence B. Saint

Abstract: This collection consists of chemical formulae developed by Lawrence Saint for use in his stained glass work at the Washington National Cathedral. There are supporting samples, records, and notes.

Repository: Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.archivescenter@si.edu 202-633-3270 www.americanhistory.si.edu/archives

Collection Number: AC0090

Processing Note: Processed by Robert S. Harding, 1984; assisted by Valerie Herman and Calli Ward; finding aid revised by Franklin A. Robinson, Jr., archives technician, December 2008; supervised by Vanessa Broussard Simmons, archivist.

 

INFORMATION FOR USERS OF THE COLLECTION

Conditions Governing Access: The collection is open for research use.

Physical Access: Researchers must handle unprotected photographs with gloves. Collection located at off-site storage area.

Conditions Governing Reproduction and Use: Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply.

Preferred Citation: [Title and date of item], Washington National Cathedral Stained Glass Formulae Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, box number X, folder number XX, digital file number XXXXXXXX

 

IN-DEPTH INFORMATION ABOUT THE COLLECTION

Administrative/Biographical History: Lawrence B. Saint was born in Pittsburgh in 1885. The work he did with stained glass, especially filming (the process of making a work of stained glass, old or new, look as if it is from the Middle Ages), influenced glassmakers everywhere. At thirteen, Saint was employed in Goeddel's wallpaper store. While at Goeddel’s, Saint made sketches which impressed J. Horace Ruby, a former Goeddel’s employee. Saint then began working under Ruby at Ruby Brothers Stained Glass Company. Saint's chores in the studio were to grind paint, trace patterns, sweep the floors, and build fires in the pot-bellied stove. Saint worked in this studio for four years. He saved enough money to put himself through the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia.

After art school, Saint was employed by the H. F. Petgen Company of Pittsburgh to design a large rose window for the Roman Catholic Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in East Liberty, Pennsylvania. It was a mosaic of color with symbols of the four evangelists of Christ. During his last year in art school, Saint met his future wife, Katherine Wright. Their honeymoon in Europe provided Saint time to study and copy medieval stained glass. Saint made at least three visits to Europe and collected sample glass from Chartres and other cathedrals.

When Saint returned to the United States he designed and painted windows for eleven years under the direction of Raymond Pitcairn, promoter of medieval arts at Bryn Athyn Cathedral in Pennsylvania. During this period, Saint started to portray figures from life to record the faces of his generation. Between visits to Europe, Saint completed six windows in eleven years. Three were figure windows, three were two small roses, and one was a grisaille window. Grisaille is a style of monochromatic painting in shades of gray, used especially for the representation of relief sculpture, or to simulate one. After his work at Bryn Athyn, Saint worked out of his own stained glass studio.

He then went to work for the Washington National Cathedral as head of its stained glass studio. He designed and executed fourteen windows for the Cathedral: the North Rose Window, nine choir aisle windows, and four others in the north transept aisles. Saint experimented with recapturing the reds, blues, and other vibrant colors achieved by medieval glass makers using formulae based on spectroscopic analyses of scraps of 13th century glass. While working for the Cathedral, a fire broke out in Saint’s studio. Many windows and materials were destroyed including a window depicting Moses. Saint’s most famous work for the Cathedral was the North Rose Window entitled, “The Last Judgment.” This window cost $22,687 and took twelve men to create. Saint made his own glass and applied his own process for filming it. Upon completion, Saint's work was displayed at the Free Library of Philadelphia in 1957 and in other cities. Saint said, 'I trust that my material, made public, will lead others to improve on my work...".

Scope and Content: This collection consists of 97.5 formulae developed by Lawrence Saint for making stained glass. A shoe box contains 3x5 index cards of the formulae. Included are duplicate formulae and some miscellaneous notes. There are also 821 samples of glass for various formulae. Some of the formulae were missing when the collection was donated to the National Museum of American History. These are noted within the Container List.

System of Arrangement: This collection is divided into three series:

Series 1, Formulae, 1927-1933
Series 2, Notes and Records, 1926-1936
Series 3, Glass Samples, 1927-1933

Acquisition Information: This collection was donated to the National Museum of American History, formerly the National Museum of History and Technology, by the Washington National Cathedral, 1977.

Custodial History: Transferred to the Archives Center from the Division of Ceramics and Glass, 1984.

Access Points:

Subject/Names:
Petgen, H. F.
H. F. Petgen Company
Pitcairn, Raymond
Ruby Brothers Stained Glass Company
Saint, Lawrence B.
Washington National Cathedral
Wright, Katherine

Subject/Topical:
Glass, Colored
Glass artists
Stained glass windows
Glass painting and staining
Glass manufacture
Glass coatings

Geographic:
Pittsburgh ( Pa.)
United States
Washington (D.C.)

Form/Genre:
Chemistry--notation
Glass samples

Occupations:
Glass artists

CONTAINER LISTING

 

Box

Folder

 

 

 

Series 1, Formulae, 1927-1933

1

 

1-100

2

 

101-200

3

 

201-300

4

 

301-390

5

 

391-449

6

 

450-550

7

 

551-640

8

 

641-720

9

 

721-809 (missing 726)

10

 

810-1006 (missing 832-835; 861-878; 880; 883-905; 908-936; 938-945; 947-953; 955-963; 965-969; 974-975; 978-980; 984-1003)

 

 

Series 2, Notes and Records, 1926-1936

 

 

Notes

 

 

Duplicate formulae

 

 

Specification for Alterations to the Loggia of the Bishop’s House, Washington Cathedral Close, Mount St. Alban, Washington, D.C., Frohman, Rhobb & Little, Architects, Boston, Massachusetts, May 4, 1926.

 

 

Xerox of folders from which original formulae were taken

 

 

Complete red formulae (notes on processes for making the red plates)

 

 

Glass house record, December 2, 1936

29

 

3x5 index cards of formulae

 

 

Series 3, Glass Samples, 1927-1933

11

 

1-42

12

 

43-70

13

 

71-130

14

 

131-181

15

 

182-218

16

 

219-246

17

 

247-279

18

 

280-299

19

 

300-329

20

 

330-412 (missing 367; 370; 377; 379; 381; 391)

21

 

413-459 (missing 420-424)

22

 

460-498

23

 

499-525 (missing 505-506)

24

 

526-565

25

 

566-614

26

 

615-680

27

 

681-749

28

 

750-834

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Revised: February 18, 2010