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OVERVIEW OF THE COLLECTION

Title: Norwich Eaton Pharmaceutical, Inc., Collection

Collection Dates: 1900-1985 (bulk 1920-1940s)

Extent and Forms of Material: 18 cubic feet (37 boxes)

Creator: Norwich Eaton Pharmaceutical, Inc.

Abstract: The Norwich Eaton Pharmaceutical, Inc., Collection includes advertisements, company histories, equipment purchasing proposals, batch orders, finishing production orders, packaging orders and records documenting the creation and advertising of several products, including Furacin, Asogen, Paracin, Unguentine, Necta Sweet, and Chloraseptic Pepto-Bismo, a popular liquid still used to relieve various digestive ailments. Founded in 1885, Norwich Eaton was acquired in 1982 by Proctor and Gamble.

Repository: Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. archivescenter@si.edu 202-633-3270 www.americanhistory.si.edu/archives

Collection Number: AC0329

Processing Note: Processed by Robert Ageton, 1990 (volunteer); revised by Kimberly Rowe (intern), Neendomis Adams (intern), Alisha McCullick (intern),and Michael Stratmoen (intern) March, 2010; supervised by Alison Oswald, archivist.

 

INFORMATION FOR USERS OF THE COLLECTION

Conditions Governing Access: The collection is open for research use.

Conditions Governing Reproduction and Use: Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Reproduction permission from Archives Center: reproduction fees may apply.

Preferred Citation: Title and date of item, Norwich Eaton Pharmaceutical, Inc. Collection, 1920-1985, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, box number X, folder number XX, digital file number XXXXXXXX

 

IN-DEPTH INFORMATION ABOUT THE COLLECTION

Administrative History: Norwich-Eaton was founded in 1885 by a Baptist minister, the Reverend Lafayette F. Moore, who, with some rudimentary pill making machinery and a few proprietary formulas, set up shop as "L.F. Moore, Pill Manufacturer." Financial problems from the start forced Reverend Moore into a partnership with Oscar G. Bell, an employee of T.D. Miller's drugstore, to which Moore was heavily indebted. The company adopted a new name, "Moore and Bell."

In 1887, without warning or explanation, Moore left Norwich and eventually returned to the ministry. Bell quickly found two new associates and continued to manufacture medicines under the name of the Norwich Pharmacal Company. They became the world's largest producers of aloin from aloes, and resin of podophyllum from mandrake root, as well as a leader in the development of vitamin products. They brought to the market such well known products as Unguentine and Pepto-Bismol. By the 1920's, Norwich listed approximately 4,000 elixirs, tinctures, syrups, pills, tablets, extracts, suppositories, dressings, and even surgical instruments in its sales catalog.

In 1982 the company was acquired by Proctor and Gamble and continues to be a research-based manufacturer and marketer of prescription drugs and special dietary foods.

Scope and Content: The Norwich Eaton Pharmaceutical, Inc., Collection includes advertisements, company histories, equipment purchasing proposals, batch orders, finishing production orders, packaging orders and records documenting the creation and advertising of several products. The bulk of the material consists of company advertising records such as Unguentine and Pepto-Bismol; but there are also several posters and advertisements devoted to other products such as Norforms and Zemacol. The advertisement records range in period from the mid 1920s to 1966, with the majority from the 1940s. Thus, it is possible to examine the marketing of these products over a 40 year period and view the changes in style, format, and content of the advertisements. There are several advertising campaign items (brochures and packets) referring to strategies or motifs for which examples exist within this collection. Some of the posters in the collection, such as the early ones with a surface textured to simulate paint, or several of the later silk screens, can be regarded as works of art. Some were signed by the artist. Batch orders, finishing orders, and package orders relate to quality control.

System Arrangement : The collection is arranged into seven series.

Series 1, Company History, 1940; 1980
Series 2, Company Publications, 1939-1982
Series 3, Advertising Records, 1923-1982
Series 4, Trade Literature, 1900-1980, undated
Series 5, Batch Records, 1920s-1940s
Series 6, Finishing Production Orders, 1920s-1940s
Series 7, Package Orders, 1920s to 1940s

Series 1, Company History , 1940; 1980, consists of two company histories and documentation about the materials donated to the National Museum of American History. Included is a 67-page history of the company by A. J. Galloway (1940) documenting major events starting with the company’s founding in 1885; a company memorandum on the company museum and an exhibit script prepared by former National Museum of American History curator Michael Harris.

Series 2, Company Publications, 1939-1982, consists of annual reports and company newsletters. Copies of News and Views (1968-1982) the company’s monthly newsletter, Scope (1959), another company newsletter, and Coffee Break (1978), a company newsletter for employees, are included.

Series 3, Advertising Record, 1923-1982, contains advertisements for medical products made by Norwich Eaton for public consumption, many with attached order sheets, rebates, and offers of prizes to dealers. Examples of advertised products include Furacin, Asogen, Paracin, Unguentine (an antiseptic ointment used to treat skin burns, cuts, and scratches), Necta Sweet, Chloraseptic Pepto-Bismol, and various vitamins. Furacin is synthesized from the pentose sugar of oat hulls. Furacin has been prepared for the prophylaxis or treatment of bacterial surface infection and was tested by Eaton bacteriologists for its antibacterial characteristics. Other products developed include Asogen (an amino acid-based aluminum compound) developed for peptic ulcer and hyperchlorihydria, and Paracin (a combination of DDT and benzocaine) developed to treat the most common parasites which attack the human body.

The advertising records include brochures, pamphlets, point of purchase ads, letters, broadsides, order forms, newspaper advertisements, public outreach event advertisements, advertising packets, veterinary products, questionnaires, catalogs, reports to stockholders, death notices, and postcards. The ads are both color and black-and-white and were aimed at druggists who could sell their products.

Series 4, Trade Literature, 1900-1980, undated, consists of correspondence between Norwich Eaton executives and heavy industrial equipment producers. It includes pamphlets and brochures, drawings, and trade literature that detail various aspects of the pharmaceutical industry. Many of these materials contain proposals by companies hoping to sell Norwich Easton machinery for use in the production of pharmaceutical products. Two folders contain miscellaneous trade literature about new machinery for factories. Among the topics are: air filters, thermostats, chainless conveyors, package filling machines.

Series 5, Batch Records, 1920s-1940s , consists of 5” x 7” order slips detailing product tests. A batch record follows a batch of a certain pharmaceutical product. Information contained in a batch record includes the quantity of ingredients, both active and inactive, and the quantities of each material used in production. It is printed from a master formula card on a blue print card, and each batch record has a lot number recorded on it. This allowed quality control officials to follow the production of each batch of product easily. Much of the collection consists of batch records, finishing production orders, and package orders which detailed the testing, production, and formulae of various pharmaceutical products produced by Norwich Eaton from the 1920s to 1940s.

In response to several injuries and deaths caused by taking tainted pharmaceutical products, many companies including Norwich Eaton, initiated quality control measures in the early 1940s. In partnership with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the companies too measures that included batch records, finishing production orders, and package orders, and carefully followed manufacture and packaging procedures. If discrepancies occurred, these would be noted and allow the company time to dispose of potentially dangerous materials before they reached the American public for consumption.

Series 6, Finishing Production Orders, 1920s-1940s , consists of 5” x 7” cards with information about the product. Each card includes the order number, the quantity of product produced, the intended use of the product (e.g. cough suppressant in young children), production completion date, signatures of employees who accepted the product labels and packaged the products, and a stamp on the back listing the active and inactive ingredients of the product.

Series 7, Package Orders, 1920s-1940s , consists of 5” x 7” order cards detailing requisitions for the quality of materials to be delivered to the finishing department. Each order had a control number and was signed by company inspectors in the labeling department. This ensured the accuracy of the labeling operation.

Acquisition Information: In February, 1986 Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals, Inc. donated pharmaceutical products, manufacturing records, and advertising materials to the Division Medical Sciences, now known as the Division of Medicine and Science.

Custodial History: On April 7, 1989, publications and advertising material were transferred to Archives Center from the Division of Medicine and Science.

Related Archival Materials: The Division of Medicine and Science still retains manufacturing records (1921-1950), photographs (1920-1970s), and twelve catalogues and price lists (1906-1932).

Access Points:

Subject/Names:
Norwich Eaton Pharmaceutical, Inc.
Galloway, A.J.
Harris, Michael
Arthur Colton Co.
J.H. Day Company
Ducone Company

Subject/Topical:
Furacin
Asogen
Paracin
Pharmacology
Pharmaceutical industry--1920-1990
Unguentine
Necta Sweet
Chloraseptic Pepto-Bismol

Geographic:
Norwich, (N.Y.)

Form/Genre:
Business records--20th century
Medical Products
Advertisements
Correspondence
Newsletters
Production Orders
Package Orders

Occupations:
Chemists

CONTAINER LISTING

 

Box

Folder

 

 

 

Series 1, Company History, 1940; 1980; 1985

1

1

Galloway, A.J., Norwich Through The Years, 1940 July 22

 

2

Norwich Company Memorandum, "Organization of Materials In Company Museum," 1980 February 2

 

3

Harris, Michael, "Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals, Inc.100 Years of Drug Manufacturing.” 1985 April 24

 

 

Series 2, Company Publications, 1939-1982

 

4

Annual Reports, 1939-1966 (not inclusive)

 

5

Annual Reports, 1967-1978 (not inclusive)

 

6

Annual Reports, 1979-1980

 

7

Norwich News & Views , 1968 January-1972 September

 

8

Norwich News & Views , 1982 October–1982 May

 

9

Scope , Vol. 3, No. 2, 1959 April 27

 

9

Coffee Break , 1969 August-1978 April

 

 

Series 3, Advertising Records, 1928-1982

 

10

Advertising, 1928

 

11

Advertising, 1929

 

12

Advertising, 1931

 

13

Advertising, 1932

 

14

Advertising, 1933

 

15

Advertising, 1935

 

16

Advertising, 1936

 

17

Advertising, 1937

 

18

Advertising, 1938

 

19

Advertising, circa 1939

 

20

Advertising, 1939

 

21

Advertising, 1940

 

22

Advertising, 1941

 

23

Advertising, 1942

2

1

Advertising, 1943

 

2

Advertising, 1944

 

3

Advertising, 1945

 

4

Advertising, 1946

 

5

Advertising, 1947

 

6

Advertising, 1948

 

7

Advertising, 1949

 

8

Advertising, 1950

 

9

Advertising, 1951

 

10

Advertising, 1952

 

11

Advertising, 1953

 

12

Advertising, 1954

 

13

Advertising, 1955

 

14

Advertising, 1956

 

15

Advertising, 1957

 

16

Advertising, 1958

 

17

Advertising, (veterinary), 1958-1979

 

18-19

Advertising, 1959

 

20

Advertising, 1960

 

21-22

Advertising, 1960

 

23-24

Advertising, 1961

3

1

Advertising, 1961

 

2-3

Advertising, 1962

 

4

Advertising, 1963

 

5

Advertising, 1964

 

6

Advertising, 1965

 

7

Advertising, 1966

 

8

Advertising, 1967

 

9

Advertising, 1968

 

10

Advertising, 1969

 

11

Advertising, 1970

 

12

Advertising, 1971

 

13

Advertising, 1972

 

14

Advertising and refunds, 1978-1982

 

15

Eaton finished jobs--advertising material of a laboratory-developed organic compound, Furacin, undated

 

16

Advertising packets, 1947; 1976-1982

 

17

Advertising packets, 1980-1982

 

18

Advertising--mats and reproduction proofs for retailer newspaper advertising and advertising pamphlets, 1951, 1976-1979

6

1-3

Large size display signs and advertisements for Unguentine, Pepto-Bismo, undated

7

1

Norform advertisements for retail display, undated

 

2

Norplex advertisements for retail display, undated

 

3

Miscellaneous product advertisements for retail display, undated

 

4

Pepto-Bismol advertisements for retail display, undated

 

5

Unguentine advertisements for retail display, 1924

 

6

Unguentine advertisements for retail display, 1927, 1928

 

7

Unguentine advertisements for retail display, 1944

 

8

Unguentine advertisements for retail display, undated

8

1

Advertising information for retailers, undated

 

2

Prize catalogs for selling incentives/awards, 1935

 

3

Unguentine advertising campaigns, 1923, 1925

 

4

Vitamin products lists, 1941, undated

4

17

Assorted medical advertisements, correspondence, directions, and articles, 1892; 1901-1907

 

18

Medical advertisements, 1902-1907

 

19

Medical advertisements, undated

 

19

Possible lettering styles, undated

 

20

Engraving information, undated

3

21

Labels samples, 1939-1941, undated

 

22

Christmas packaging examples, 1940, undated

 

23

Packaging samples/examples, 1937-1942, undated

 

24

Color/color combinations, undated

 

25

Paper samples, 1940, undated

 

26

Possible display ideas, undated

4

1-2

Ephemera, 1903-1907, undated

 

 

Series 4, Trade Literature, 1900-1980, undated

4

3

Medical equipment brochures, 1959, undated

 

4

Norwich trade literature, undated

 

5

Proposed equipment purchase, 1953

 

6

#477 Plastic bottle filling, 1951-1953

 

7

#476 Furoxone-scales, 1954

 

8

#527 Labeler #5 liquid line, 1952-1954

 

9

#564 Proposed Sterik Laboratory, 1959, undated

 

10

#555 Conveyor #4 to #5 line B-5, F-2, 1954

 

11

#566 Bradley containers, 1954-1955

 

12

#485 Dust collectors–wood corers, 1953-1954

 

13

Honeywell proposal, 1953

 

14

#484 Transporting equipment, 1953

 

15

#476 Furoxone-pumps, 1947-1953

 

16

#490 Dust Collection-Aspirin Granulation Department, 1953

 

20

Arthur Colton Company, 1953-1953, undated

 

21

#341 Sound recorder, 1950-1953

 

22

Assorted proposal documents, 1951-1956

 

23

Proposed equipment purchase, 1952-1956

 

24

Purchasing information, 1953

 

25

Operating instructions, 1941

 

26

Trade literature, 1952-1956

 

27

Trade literature, 1943-1952

5

1

Tolhurst centrifugals, 1955

 

2

Furoxone Explosion/Cylinders, 1952-1956

 

3

Miscellaneous equipment, 1950-1953, undated

 

4

Dryers, 1953

 

5

Dust removal systems, 1951-1956, undated

 

6

Syracuse Supply Company, 1950-1953

 

7

Stokes and Smith Company, 1947-1953

 

8

J.H. Day Company, 1953, undated

 

9

Ducone Company, 1949-1952, undated

 

10

Code-stamping machine responses, 1953

 

11

Chenango County, 1980-1984

 

 

Series 5, Batch Records, 1920s-1940s

23

 

25,002 to 25,294

24

 

25,295 to 25,719

25

 

25,720 to 25,938

26

 

25,940 to 26,248

27

 

26,249 to 26,465

28

 

26,466 to 26,658

29

 

26,098 to 28,509

30

 

1004 to 3313

31

 

1017 to 9941

32

 

5204 to 7169

33

 

7190 to 8420

34

 

8443 to 9984

35

 

1200 to 9899

36

 

1555 to 8174

37

 

3322 to 5168

 

 

Series 6, Finishing Production Orders, 1920s-1940s

9

 

124,000 to 132,499

10

 

132,500 to 138,299

11

 

138,300 to 139,599

12

 

139,600 to 140,799

13

 

140,800 to 141,899; 142,000 to 144,399

14

 

144,000 to 152,499

15

 

152,500 to 154,699

16

 

154,700 to 159,799

17

 

159,800 to 162,999; 165,000 to 174,400

18

 

176,000 to 173,599; 180,000 to 190,000

 

 

Series 7, Package Orders, 1920s-1940s

18

 

200,000 to 215,199

19

 

215,200 to 216,599

20

 

216,600 to 217,099; 220,000 to 300,199

21

 

300,200 to 301,499

22

 

301,500 to 302,799

 

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Revised: June 22, 2010