Guide to the Records of Wedge Innovations
NMAH.AC.0534

Administrative Information

Repository Information

Archives Center, National Museum of American History, 2012

P.O. Box 37012
 Suite 1100, MRC 601
 Washington, D.C., 20013-7012
 Phone: 202-633-3270
 archivescenter@si.edu

Conditions Governing Access note

The collection is open for research use.

Conditions Governing Use note

Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Custodial History note

The collection was donated by Andrew Butler, SmartLevel inventor and company founder, Brian Bayley, Vice-President for engineering at Wedge Innovations from 1989-1992, and Kevin Reeder, an independent industrial designer.

The oral history interviews were conducted in 1995 and 1996 by David Shayt, curator, Division of Work and Industry and funded by the Lemelson Center, National Museum of American History.

Some material from David Shayt’s working files for the oral history project, which came originally from Ronald Wisnia and Ken Gunderson, engineers at Wedge Innovations, was interfiled with the Butler donation. Records donated by Andrew Butler, Brian Bayley, Kevin Reeder, Rick Fetter, Ronald Wisnig, Ken Gunderson. Oral histories conducted by David Shayt, curator, National Museum of American History.

Immediate Source of Acquisition note

The collection was donated by Andrew Butler, SmartLevel inventor and company founder, Brian Bayley, Vice-President for engineering at Wedge Innovations from 1989-1992, and Kevin Reeder, an independent industrial designer, 1995-1997.

Processing Information note

Processed by Lisa Robinson, 1997; revised Alison L. Oswald, 2002; revised by Julie Pepera, 2006.

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Summary Information

Repository
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Creator - (interviewer).
Shayt, David H.
Creator
Wedge Innovations.
Title
Records of Wedge Innovations
ID
NMAH.AC.0534
Date [inclusive]
1985-1996
Extent
13.00 Cubic feet; 28 boxes, 5 oversized folders
Language
English
Abstract
The records of Wedge Innovations document the invention and development of a new hand tool, the SmartLevel, an electronic builder's level; also included are company management and policies.

Preferred Citation note

The Records of Wedge Innovations, 1985-1996, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.

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Biographical/Historical note

Andrew G. Butler (b. 1955), the founder of Wedge Innovations exhibited an interest in building construction and an entrepreneurial spirit early in life. From age 12 to 17 he built a boat that he then sailed alone from California to Tahiti, where he spent several years as an independent carpenter and building contractor. After returning to the United States, he earned a B.S. degree in electromechanical engineering from Stanford University (1983) and became a software specialist for Bechtel Construction. In 1985, he conceived of an idea for an electronic carpenter’s level that could read a range of angles. Butler formed Wedge Innovations in 1986. He worked in the basement of his home in order to develop and market this level, selling his boat to finance the venture. He hired Marilyn Crowell as his secretary and Robert Nagle and Dan Kellogg as engineers. This company developed the sensor technology and software necessary to build the company’s first product, the WedgeLevel. The heart of this tool was an electronic sensor circuit connected to a microprocessor capable of measuring the tool’s orientation. This sensor module fit into an ergonomically-designed teak rail with anodized aluminum edges jointly developed by Butler, engineering design consultant Kevin Reeder, and engineer Ronald Wisnia.

In 1987, Wedge moved to Santa Clara to begin manufacturing the WedgeLevel. The transition from a research and development concern to a manufacturing company proved difficult, due to manufacturing and financial difficulties. It was difficult to obtain a reliable yet inexpensive source of teak for the rails, designs for a plastic composite and aluminum rail were developed, while offshore manufacturing of the sensor components was established. Overarching all concerns was the persistent difficulty of obtaining sufficient investment capital. While managing his growing company, Butler also began planning for a line of hand tools that combined microelectronics and user-oriented, ergonomic design. In 1988, the company changed the name of its product to SmartLevel in order to emphasize the company’s proposed line of Smart Tools. That same year, the company adopted a new corporate logo, a stylized W with a red wedge, signaling its growing maturity. Promotion of the product also began through demonstrations of the prototype done by consultant building contractor, Rick Feffer.

In January 1989, the SmartLevel prototype was launched at the National Association of Home Builders Show in Atlanta, Georgia. The favorable publicity generated by this launch and by the company’s media campaign generated many orders. To supply these orders, Wedge moved to larger quarters in Sunnyvale on April 1, 1989. In June 1989, Wedge gained further publicity by donating several SmartLevels to a Habitat for Humanity project in Milwaukee, where former president Jimmy Carter used one. Although Wedge expected to ship the first SmartLevels in July 1989, there were considerable delays in manufacturing. In particular, there were stability and performance problems with the sensor, which engineer Ken Gunderson was brought in to remedy. The sensor module was re-engineered to be more rugged and the level was redesigned with a plastic composite and aluminum rail. The new level, known as the Pro SmartLevel, was intended for the professional construction market. The first SmartLevels were shipped on September 5, 1989.

In 1990, patents were granted to Andrew Butler, Donald G. Green, and Robert E. Nagle for an inclinometer sensor circuit and to Butler and Ronald Wisnia for a carpenter’s level design. That same year, Brian Bayley joined Wedge as Vice-president for Engineering, and Edwin “Win” Seipp joined as Project Manager - DIY SmartLevel. Seipp’s responsibility was to develop a low-cost, “do-it-yourself” version of the SmartLevel, which was eventually called the Series 200 SmartLevel. This level had an all-aluminum rail and a non-removable sensor.

In September 1990, the company moved to San Jose and by 1991 had over 60 employees. Although sales continued to grow and name recognition of the product was quite strong, Wedge had difficulty meeting the expectations of its investors. Butler entered into financial negotiations with the Macklanburg-Duncan Corporation, a large-scale manufacturer of hand tools, to seek investment in his company. These negotiations led in November 1992 to the acquisition of Wedge by Macklanburg-Duncan, which dissolved all but Wedge’s engineering section. Macklanburg-Duncan today manufactures a “SmartTool” level, while Butler co-owns D2M (Design To Market), a company that develops new product ideas for the market.

SmartLevel Chronology
1992 Butler negotiates with Macklanburg-Duncan for a merger to save Wedge. In the midst of the negotiations, Butler is fired by his Board of Directors. Butler regains control of Wedge three months later, fires the replacement president, and sells Wedge outright to Macklanburg-Duncan, which dissolves all but the engineering functions of Wedge.
1991 Wedge sponsors a “New Product Development Conference,” where numerous designs for new hand tools are worked on. SmartLevel sales and name recognition grows but not quickly enough to meet overhead expenses of new facility or investors’ demands.
1990 Yet more redesign work, both in-house and with Kevin Reeder, who also develops idea for “SmartTube” carrying case (not built). Patents granted to Andy Butler et al. for inclinometer sensor circuit and carpenter’s level design. Wedge hires Brian Bayley as vice-president for engineering to develop a low-cost model of the SmartLevel. The all-aluminum Series 200 SmartLevel is born. Wedge moves to larger facilities in San Jose.
1989 SmartLevel launched at National Association of Home Builders show in January. Good press coverage, but cannot meet orders. More publicity from Habitat for Humanity project when former President Jimmy Carter uses a SmartLevel. But stability and performance problems plague sensor. More redesign work results in more rugged Pro SmartLevel. The first SmartLevels shipped on September 5, 1989.
1987-1988 Wedge moves to Santa Clara; intends to begin manufacturing and todevelop an entire line of “Smart Tools” but encounters financial and engineering difficulties; Wedge consults with independent design engineer, Kevin Reeder, on level design. Intensive redesign effort develops the SmartLevel, made of plastic and aluminum rail.
1986 Wedge Innovations founded in the basement of Butler’s house; basic sensor design worked out; teak & aluminum WedgeLevel developed.
1985 Idea for electronic carpenter’s level formulated by Andy Butler.

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Scope and Contents note

The SmartLevel story gives excellent insight into the life cycle of a small Silicon valley start-up in the 1980s. SmartLevel’s creator, Wedge Innovations, established a market for a new product, achieved national distribution, off-shore manufacturing, and product licensing, before going out of business due to pressure from profit-hungry venture capitalists.

The records of Wedge Innovations is a “tool biography” that documents the invention and development of a new hand tool, the SmartLevel, an electronic builder’s level first conceived in 1985 by Andrew Butler. The SmartLevel Collection is divided into seven series: Corporate Records, Engineering Records, Financial Records, Marketing Records, Operations Records, Product Development Records, and Corporate Culture, reflecting both the organizational structure of Wedge Innovations and the company’s working environment.

Series 1, Corporate Records, 1985-1993, address the overall management of Wedge Innovations and document its policies, especially through the company’s annual business plans, 1986-1992, and the monthly reports prepared for the Board of Directors’ meetings, 1989-1992. This series also details the workings of each department through weekly departmental reports. The staff meetings files, July-November 1989, February 1990-November 1992, are particularly useful for understanding the day-to-day operation of the company.

Series 2, Engineering Records, 1985-1993, document the design and development of the SmartLevel from its conception in 1985 as the WedgeLevel, through its production as the SmartLevel in 1989, and through its refinement into the Pro SmartLevel and the Series 200 SmartLevel in 1991. The design process is particularly well documented through Andrew Butler’s and Kevin Reeder’s design notebooks and through the detailed technical drawings done by Butler, Reeder, and Ronald Wisnia. Also well documented are the efforts made to solve the many problems associated with the development and quality control of the electronic sensor module that was the heart of the SmartLevel.

Series 3, Financial Records, 1985-1992, include Wedge’s summary financial statements from 1985 to 1992.

Series 4, Marketing Records, 1986-1992, document customer and dealer relations through marketing department correspondence, operational records, and advertising campaigns. This series is particularly rich in promotional material (1988-1992), such as advertisements, advertising copy, photographs, product promotion plans, and videotapes that demonstrate the varied features and uses of the products.

Series 5, Operations Records, 1990-1993, document the manufacturing process and the Company’s offshore operations.

Series 6, Product Development Records, 1986-1993, document the company’s intended development of an entire “Smart Tools” line.

Series 7, Corporate Culture, 1985-1996, contains employee photographs and oral history interviews with key Wedge personnel conducted in 1995 and 1996 by David Shayt, Division of Work and Industry, National Museum of American History. The interviews discuss the background of the participants, the company’s origins and history, product development, the Silicon Valley context, and the efforts of Wedge Innovations successor firm, SmartTool Technologies.

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Arrangement note

The collection organized into seven series.

Series 1, Corporate Records, 1985-1993

Series 2, Engineering Records, 1985-1993

Series 3, Financial Records, 1985-1992

Series 4, Marketing Records, 1986-1992

Series 5, Operations Records, 1990-1993

Series 6, Product Development Records, 1986-1993

Series 7, Corporate Culture, 1985-1996

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Related Materials

Related Archival Materials note

Materials at the National Museum of American History

The Division of Work and Industry, National Museum of American History contains artifacts related to the SmartLevel Collection. These include five SmartLevels (Accession #1991.0823; 1996.0284; 1996.0285; 1996.0288; and 1996.0289). They are an original teak WedgeLevel, a Pro SmartLevel, a Series 200 SmartLevel, a Bosch version of the SmartLevel, and a Macklanburg-Duncan SmartTool level. There are also four sensor modules (torpedo levels), two sensors, two carrying cases, one cap, one tee shirt, and one wooden puzzle with the inscription “The World Isn’t Just Level and Plumb.”

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Controlled Access Headings

Genre(s)

  • Advertisements--1980-2000
  • Audiotapes
  • Correspondence--1970-2000.
  • Drawings--1980-2000
  • Financial records--1980-2000
  • Financial statements--1980-2000
  • Interviews--1980-2000.
  • Notebooks--1980-2000
  • Oral histories (document genres)--1990-2000.
  • Photographs--Black-and-white photoprints--Silver gelatin--1950-2000
  • Photographs--Black-and-white photoprints--Silver gelatin--1980-2000
  • Videotapes

Subject(s)

  • Advertising--Tools--1980-2000
  • Carpenters--1980-2000
  • Carpentry--Tools--1980-2000
  • Electronics--Tools and implements--1980-2000
  • Engineers--1980-2000
  • Industrial design--1980-2000
  • Industrial designers--1980-2000
  • Inventors--1980-2000
  • Investors--1980-2000
  • Level indicators--1980-2000
  • Leveling--1980-2000
  • Merchandise displays
  • Product demonstrations--1980-2000
  • Silicon Valley--1980-2000
  • Small business--Management--1980-2000
  • Teak--Use of--1980-2000
  • Technological innovations--Hand tools--1980-2000
  • Tools--1980-2000--United States
  • Venture capital--1980-2000--United States

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Collection Inventory

 Series 1: Corporate Records, 1985-1993

Box Folder

Acquisition by Macklanburg-Duncan, 1990-1992

1 1-3

Board of directors' meetings, 1989 February - 1990 April

1 4-11

Board of directors' meetings, 1990 May - 1991 March

2 1-10

Board of directors' meetings, 1991 April - 1992 April

3 1-7

Business plans, 1986 September - 1988 September

3 8-11

Business plans, 1989 December - 1992 June

4 1-9

By-laws, 1985

4 10

Charter, 1987

5 1

Communications program, 1991

5 2-3

D2M [Design to Market], circa 1993

5 4
Map-case Drawer Folder

Floor plan drawings, 1987

3 9 1
Box Folder

Incoporation, 1985-1991

5 5

Industrial relations, 1992

5 6

Information technology, 1992

5 7

Investor newsletters ( Wedge Quarterly), 1987-1990

5 8-9

Matsushita visit, 1987 October 28

5 10

Matsushita visit, 1987 October 28

19 1

Memos, 1991-1992

5 11

Objectives, 1990-1991

5 12

Overhead transparencies, circa 1990

19 2

Staff meetings, 1989 July - 1990 March

5 13-18

Staff meetings, 1990 April-August

6 1-9

Staff meetings, 1990 September - 1991 June

7 1-10

Staff meetings (Engineering report), 1989 October 16

19 3

Staff meetings, 1991 July - 1992 April

8 1-11

Staff meetings, 1992 May-December

9 1-7

Stock, 1988

9 8

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 Series 2: Engineering Records, 1985-1993

Box Folder

Design-carrying case, 1989

9 9-10
Map-case Drawer Folder

Design-drawings, 1985-circa 1987

3 9 2

Design-drawings, 1987-1990

3 9 3
Box Folder

Design-drawings, 1985 - circa 1987

20 4

Design-drawings, 1988-1992

20 5

Design-drawings (Bosch version), 1990

20 8

Design-issues, 1986-1992

9 11

Design-notebooks (Andrew Butler), 1985 - 1988 March

9 12

Design-notebooks (Andrew Butler), 1988 May - 1990

10 1

Design-notebooks (Kevin Reeder), 1987-1988

10 2-5

Design-rail, 1987-1990

10 6

Design-rail end, circa 1988

11 1

Design-rail insert, 1989

11 2

Design-Series 200 SmartLevel, 1989-1992

11 3

Design-Smartlevel, 1988-1989

11 3

Design-module tables, 1989-1990

11 6

Design-objectives, 1990-1992

11 7

Design-patents, 1990

11 8

Design-patent, inclinometer circuit (Andrew G. Butler), 1990

19 7

Product-comparisons, 1987-1990

11 9

Product-description, 1987

11 10

Product-reviews, 1992

11 11

Product-reviews (Bosch & Stabila versions), 1992

20 1
Map-case Drawer Folder

Schedules, 1987

3 9 4
Box Folder

Schedules, 1988

11 12

Schedules, 1988 February 10

19 4

Schedules, 1988 July 11

20 2

Sensor module-accuracy project, 1991-1992

11 13

Sensor module-aging, 1986-1990

11 14

Sensor module-assembly, 1991

11 15

Sensor module-coating, 1991-1992

11 16

Sensor module-cost, 1988-1992

11 17

Sensor module-design, 1988-1992

11 18

Sensor module-hysteresis problem, 1992-1993

11 19

Sensor module-miscellaneous effects, 1991-1992

11 20

Sensor module-mounting, 1991

11 21

Sensor module-production, 1991-1993

11 22

Sensor module-production, 1992 December

11 23

Sensor module-seal, 1989-1991

11 24

Sensor module-settling, 1990

12 1

Sensor module-status reports, 1987-1991

12 2

Sensor module-team assignments, 1991

12 3

Sensor module-temperature compensation, 1988-1992

12 4

Thermoplastic Materials Guide, undated

20 3

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 Series 3: Financial Records, 1985-1992

Box Folder

Objectives, 1990-1992

12 5

Statements, 1985-1992

12 6-11

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 Series 4: Marketing Records, 1986-1992

Box Folder

Advertisements, 1989-1992

12 12

Advertisements, circa 1989-1992

12 13

Advertisements, 1990-1991

19 6

Advertisements, 1990 - circa 1991

20 7
Map-case Drawer Folder

Advertisements (Bosch version), circa 1992

3 9 5
Box Folder

Advertising campaign, 1989

12 14

Advertising copy, 1987

12 15

Advertising copy, 1988

13 1

Advertising displays, 1991-1992

19 5

Advertising photographs, circa 1987-1991

13 2-10

Advertising photographs, circa 1988

18 1

Brochures, circa 1989-1992

13 11-12

Business plans, 1991-1992

13 13

Contact, undated

13 14

Corporate background, 1987-1991

14 1-2

Corporate communications reports, 1989

14 3

Corporate logo design, 1988-1990

14 4

Correspondence, 1986-1992

14 5-8

Dealer communications, 1992

14 9

Dealer newsletters, 1991-1992

14 10

Direct marketing survey, 1987-1988

14 11

Endorsements, 1989-1990

14 12

Forecast, 1991 March

14 13

Forms (blank), circa 1987-1989

14 14

Habitat for Humanity Project, correspondence, 1988-1989

14 15

Habitat for Humanity Project, photographs, 1989 June

14 16
Box item

Habitat for Humanity, Milwaukee, circa 1989

1/2" VHS color circa 15 minutes Rick Feffer demonstrates a SmartLevel to former President Jimmy Carter.

14 534.1

Habitat for HumanityCBS This Morning, circa 1990

1/2" VHS color 4:59 minutes Shows a brief glimpse of former President Jimmy Carter holding a SmartLevel at a Habitat for Humanity project in Mexico.

14 534.2
Box Folder

Labels, 1987-1988

14 17

Magazine articles, 1989

14 18-19

Mailings, 1989-1990

15 1-2

Market study, 1990

15 3

Media plan, 1991

15 4

Media schedules, 1989

18 2

Miscellaneous, circa 1987-1990

15 5

Newspaper articles, 1987-1992

15 6

Objectives, 1990-1992

15 7

Owner's manuals, circa 1989-1991

15 8

Packaging, 1988

15 9

Presentations, 1988, 1991

15 10-13

Press releases, 1989, 1992

15 14-15

Press tour, 1989 September

15 16

Pro Bono Program, 1989-1990

15 17

Pro Bono Program, 1989-1990

20 6

Product, announcements, circa 1987

15 18

Product, comparison, 1987

15 19

Product, design, circa 1987

18 3

Product, promotion, 1989-1992

15 20

Public relations, ideas, undated

15 21

Public relations, plan, 1989

15 22

Public relations, position, 1987

15 23

Public relations, updates, 1991-1992

15 24

Reports, 1991

16 1

SmartLevel demonstration, 1989 November

16 3

Structural Engineering Project, 1989 December

16 4

Trade magazine articles, 1989-1992

16 5

Trade show, handouts, circa 1989-1992

16 6

Trade Shows, photographs, 1989-1991

16 7-8

Uses, 1989-1991

16 9
Box item

Introducing the WedgeLevel, 1988

1/2" VHS color 12 minutes Rick Feffer demonstrates features of the WedgeLevel and Andy Butler talks about Wedge Innovations.

21 534.3

Wedge SmartLevel loop dub, 1989

1/2" VHS color circa 1 hour (circa 8 minute segment repeated) Rick Feffer demonstrates features and applications of the WedgeLevel.

21 534.4

SmartLevel modules 1, 2 & 3, 1990

1/2" VHS

21 534.5

Sales demonstration, digital inclinometer, circa 1990

1/2" VHS

21 534.5a

Wedge logo loop, circa 1990

1⁄2” VHS color circa 75 minutes (circa 37 minute segment repeated) Rick Feffer demonstrates features of the SmartLevel; SmartLevel applications: roofing layout, home inspection, flooring installation, custom length level, machine shop (Andy Butler visits a custom car fabricator; Wedge logo appears between each segment.

21 534.6

SmartLevel modules, 1, 2 & 3, 1990

1⁄2” VHS color circa 85 minutes (circa 9 minute segment repeated) SmartLevel Digital Inclinometer, circa 1990 1⁄2” VHS color circa 8 minutes Rick Feffer demonstrates features of the SmartLevel; dealer services from Wedge Innovations.

21 534.7

Sales demonstration, circa 1990

(circa 9 minutes) Rick Feffer demonstrates features and applications of the SmartLevel; dealer services from Wedge Innovations.

21 534.7a

Eight applications loop I, circa 1990

1/2" VHS color 90 minutes (circa 7 minute segment repeated Rick Feffer demonstrates features and applications of the SmartLevel; Wedge logo appears between segments.

21 534.8

ACE hardware loop, circa 1990

1/2" VHS color 75 minutes (circa 7 minute segment repeated Rick Feffer demonstrates features and applications of the SmartLevel; Ace Hardware logo appears between segments.

21 534.9

Dealer introduction, circa 1991

1/2" VHS color 3:24 minutes Rick Feffer demonstrates features of the Series 200 SmartLevel features; Bob Brymer discusses dealer services from Wedge Innovations.

22 534.1

SmartLevel family introduction, trade show version, 1991

22 534.10a

Dealer training, circa 1991

1/2" VHS color 17 minutes Rick Feffer demonstrates features and applications of the Pro and Series 200 SmartLevels

22 534.11

Dealer training, circa 1991

1/2" VHS-PAL version color 17 minutes Rick Feffer demonstrates features and applications of the Pro and Series 200 SmartLevels.

22 534.11a

Customer introduction, circa 1991

1/2" VHS color circa 1 hour (circa 7 minute segment repeated) Rick Feffer demonstrates features of the Pro and Series 200 SmartLevels.

22 534.12

SmartLevel, McEwan's version, circa 1991

1/2" VHS color 15 seconds Series 200 SmartLevel advertisement

22 534.13

C.S.N. broadcast and SmartLevel dealer introduction, 1992

1⁄2” VHS color 1 hour Produced by the Cotter Satellite Network for Cotter & Co. (TrueValue Hardware) 6 segments: C.S.N. Update (company news); 3M NewStroke (new paint applicator); SmartLevel Dealer Introduction 4:55 minutes (SmartLevel features); SmartLevel Dealer Introduction 17 minutes (SmartLevel features; dealer services); NRHA Introduction to Selling (instruction); NRHA Greeting the Customer (instruction)

22 534.14

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 Series 5: Operation Records, 1990-1993

Box Folder

International distributor agreement, 1990

16 10

International objectives, 1992

16 11

International products overview, 1992

16 12

International sales objectives, 1992-1993

16 13

Objectives, 1990-1992

16 14

Priorities, 1991 December

16 15

Production objectives, 1992

16 16

Reviews, 1991

16 17

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 Series 6: Product Development Records, 1986-1993

Box Folder

Future products, 1987, 1992

16 18-19

Industrial market plan, 1992 April 14

16 20

Magazine articles, 1986-1992

16 21

Medical uses, 1992

16 22

Miscellaneous uses, 1992

16 23

New product development conference, 1991

17 1

Protractor, 1992

17 2

Review, 1988

17 3

Sensor market plan, 1992 April

17 4

SmartDrill, 1987-1991

17 5

SmartFinder, 1988-1990

17 6

SmartSlant, 1991

17 7

SmartSquare, 1992

17 8

SmartTape, 1987-1990

17 9

Trade literature, 1986-1993

17 10

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 Series 7: Corporate Culture, 1985-1996

Box Folder

Christmas party, 1987

17 11

Employee photographs, circa 1985-1987

17 12

Employee photographs, circa 1985-1995

17 13

Employee photographs, 1991

17 15

Employee photographs, circa 1995-1996

17 16

Photograph album, 1985

28 1

Photographs of SmartLevel tool, undated

28 2
Box

Oral history interviews, 1995-1996

Audio cassette tapes, reference copies without time codes

23

Oral history interviews, 1995-1996

Audio cassette tapes, reference copies without time codes

23

Interviewees, Ken Gunderson and Ronald Wisnia; Interviewer, David Shayt, National Museum of American history, 1.00 Sound recordingsDuration 1 hour


    Box item
Moving Images   26 534.1
    Box item
Moving Images   25 534.1
    Box item
Moving Images   24 534.1

Interviewee, Marilyn Crowell; Interviewer, David Shayt, National Museum of American History, 1995 June 20, 1.00 Sound recordingsDuration 1 hour


    Box item
Moving Images   26 534.2
    Box item
Moving Images   25 534.2
    Box item
Moving Images   24 534.2

Interviewees, Andrew Butler, Stuart McFaul, Marilyn Crowell and Ronald Wisnia, 1995 June 20, 1.00 Sound recordingsDuration 1 hour


    Box item
Moving Images   26 534.3
    Box item
Moving Images   25 534.3
    Box item
Moving Images   24 534.3

Interviewees, Andrew Butler, Marilyn Crowell and Ronald Wisnia; Interviewer, David Shayt, National Museum of American History, 1995 June 20, 1.00 Sound recordingsDuration 1 hour


    Box item
Moving Images   26 534.4
    Box item
Moving Images   25 534.4
    Box item
Moving Images   24 534.4

Interviewees, Andrew Butler, Marilyn Crowell and Edwin “Win” Siepp; Interviewer, David Shayt, National Museum of American History, 1995 June 20, 1995 June 21


    Box item
Moving Images   25 534.6
    Box item
Moving Images   24 534.6
    Box item
Moving Images   26 534.6

Interviewee, Rick Feffer; Interviewer, David Shayt, National Museum of American History, 1995 June 22, 1.00 Sound recordingsDuration 1 hour


    Box item
Moving Images   24 534.7
    Box item
Moving Images   26 534.7
    Box item
Moving Images   25 534.7

Interviewees, Rick Feffer and Stuart McFaul; Interviewer, David Shayt, National Museum of American History, 1995 June 22, 1.00 Sound recordingsDuration 1 hour


    Box item
Moving Images   26 534.8
    Box item
Moving Images   25 534.8
    Box item
Moving Images   24 534.8

Interviewees, Stuart McFaul and Dale Cheves; Interviewer, David Shayt, National Museum of American History, 1995 June 22


    Box item
Moving Images   24 534.9
    Box item
Moving Images   25 534.9
    Box item
Moving Images   26 534.9

Interviewee, Po Chi Wo; Interviewer, David Shayt, National Museum of American History, 1996 August 29, 1.00 Sound recordingsDuration 1 hour


    Box item
Moving Images   26 534.1
    Box item
Moving Images   24 534.1
    Box item
Moving Images   25 534.1

Interviewee, Rick Feffer; Interviewer, David Shayt, National Museum of American History, 1996 August 29


    Box item
Moving Images   24 534.11
    Box item
Moving Images   25 534.11
    Box item
Moving Images   26 534.11

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