Guide to the John Clifford Shaw Papers
NMAH.AC.0580

Administrative Information

Repository Information

Archives Center, National Museum of American History, 2007

P.O. Box 37012
 Suite 1100, MRC 601
 Washington, D.C., 20013-7012
 Phone: 202-633-3270
 archivescenter@si.edu

Conditions Governing Access note

The collection is open for research use.

Conditions Governing Use note

Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Immediate Source of Acquisition note

The collection was donated by John Clifford Shaw's eldest son, Doug Shaw, March 1997.

Processing Information note

Processed by Brian Keough, August 1997; supervised by Alison Oswald and Craig Orr, archivists.

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Summary Information

Repository
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Creator - (creator).
Shaw, J. Clifford, (John Clifford), 1922-1991
Title
John Clifford Shaw Papers
ID
NMAH.AC.0580
Date [bulk]
bulk 1950-1971
Date [inclusive]
1933-1993
Extent
20.50 Cubic feet; 59 boxes, 4 oversize folders
Language
English
Abstract
The John Clifford Shaw papers contain reports, research notes, correspondence, memorandum, and diagrams documenting Shaw’s development of one of the earliest list processing languages (IPL) and an early interactive, time sharing program, the JOHNNIAC Open Shop System (JOSS). The collection also contains printed material on the RAND Corporation and the evolution of the artificial intelligence and electronic computer industry in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition there is biographical material documenting Shaw’s personal interests, family, and academic career.

Preferred Citation note

John Clifford Shaw papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.

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Biographical/Historical note

John Clifford Shaw (1922-1991) was born in Southern California. Shaw went to Fullerton High School, the same high school as Richard Nixon. Shaw’s English teacher was Nixon’s high school debate team coach. Shaw attended Fullerton Junior College from 1939 until February 1943. At the same time, he worked as a timekeeper at the Douglas Aircraft Company, where he was responsible for time-card calculations and reports. He served in the U.S. Navy for three years during World War II as an aircraft navigator in the 4th Emergency Rescue Squadron in Iwo Jima, Japan and as a navigation instructor. Shaw returned to California in 1947 and began working for the Beneficial Standard Life Insurance Company as an assistant to the actuary, compiling actuarial calculations of premium rates, reserve liabilities, and annual reports. Shaw and his wife Marian had four children: Doug (b. 1948), David (b. 1950), Donna (b. 1952), and John (b. 1962). By 1948, Shaw received his Bachelor’s degree in Mathematics from UCLA and in 1950 joined the newly formed RAND Corporation as a mathematician.

The RAND Corporation evolved during the years after World War II amidst the escalating Cold War. Project RAND was originally carried out under a contract with the Douglas Aircraft Company. RAND was incorporated in May 1948. RAND, a California nonprofit corporation, was one of the earliest Cold War “think tanks” that functioned as an interdisciplinary research and development facility; it received large sums of money from the Air Force and Atomic Energy Commission. Throughout the 1950s, other agencies such as the Department of Defense, the Atomic Energy Commission, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) solicited scientific and foreign policy research from RAND. During Shaw’s tenure (1950-1971), money flowed into RAND and enabled many scientists and researchers, including Shaw and his colleagues in the Math and Numerical Analysis Department, to explore new avenues of discovery.

Shaw’s early work at RAND involved administrative matters, such as improving the processes of company management through automation of the computation and calculation techniques. This work included collaboration with Allen Newell on a radar simulator. In the mid-1950s, Newell and Shaw, and later Dr. Herbert Simon of the Carnegie Institute of Technology, formed the team known by the mid-1950s in the artificial intelligence field as NSS (Newell, Shaw, and Simon). The NSS team broke much ground in the field of artificial intelligence, programming languages, computer simulation of human problem solving, and man-machine communication. The radar simulator project involved studying how humans made decisions and whether one could design a program that could simulate human decision-making. While Newell and Simon concentrated on the human behavior aspect, Shaw focused on creating a programming language that would implement Simon and Newell’s concepts.

When Shaw began working in 1950, RAND was using six IBM 604 calculators to satisfy its scientific computing needs. In the early 1950s, RAND decided that it needed more computational power to accomplish projects for the Air Force and decided to build a Princeton-type computer named JOHNNIAC, after computer designer John von Neumann. The Princeton Class computer was considered state-of-the-art and was running at RAND by the first half of 1953. William Gunning was the project leader and Shaw worked on the selection of the instruction set and the design of the operator’s console. The JOHNNIAC became the basis for Shaw’s work on conversational time-sharing in the 1960s.

During the early 1950s, the dynamic of the innovative process was at work as Shaw and Newell in California, and Simon in Pittsburgh, were theorizing about human decision making, programming languages, and how computers could be manipulated to process information more productively. Air Force funding enabled Shaw and his colleague’s considerable intellectual and academic freedom to explore various hypotheses. In the mid-1950s, NSS began forming the theoretical basis for what they called Complex Information Processing (C.I.P.). C.I.P was the basis for the three main computer programs developed by NSS: the Chess Program, Logic Theorist (LT), and the General Problem Solver (GPS). By 1954, Shaw’s focus was on utilizing the power of the JOHNNIAC to develop a viable language that could simulate human behavior.

In early 1954, Newell left RAND for Pittsburgh to work with Simon; Shaw remained at RAND. The NSS team focused on creating programs that would enable a machine to exhibit intelligent behavior and “think” like a human. Chess and the Logic Theorist (LT) were the first programs that evolved from their work. Shaw dealt with the programming aspects, as Simon devoted his time to human thinking processes for chess, logic, and problem solving. Newell, who was still employed by RAND, was the middle man who worked both in programming and human behavior. He flew back to California every couple of months in 1954 and 1955 to confer with Shaw. Because of language limitations, the chess program was temporarily put aside as NSS decided to finish the LT. Known as IPL (Information Processing Language), the language developed by Shaw was one of the first list processing languages. Through experimentation with assemblers, compilers, and interpreters, Shaw developed list processing sequences that allowed the computer to arrange and store data more effectively. The effectiveness stemmed from links that formed the lists. From a storage point of view, lists were inefficient. Shaw translated Simon and Newell’s ideas into IPL. The IPL interpreter translated the IPL list processing statements into machine language and decision making into a machine language. Although not specifically programmed so, one of LT’s innovative characteristics was that it proved mathematical theorems from Whitehead and Russell’s Principia Mathematica, including a proof from Theorem 2.85 that the authors had missed. This was the most fascinating aspect of the program because LT was not programmed to find alternative proofs.

The NSS team’s work on the LT was completed by the end of 1955, and it perfected the program language in the winter and spring of 1956. LT was one of the earliest programs to investigate the use of heuristics in problem solving. It was capable of discovering and working out proofs for theorems in symbolic logic. In the summer of 1956, NSS presented the LT program to the artificial intelligence community at the Dartmouth Artificial Intelligence Conference. Relatively unknown at the time, NSS excited the conference with the LT and the possibilities it opened in the study of programming languages and artificial intelligence.

The NSS team continued to focus on developing artificial intelligence. By 1957, NSS had constructed the General Problem Solver (GPS) program that attempted to demonstrate various human thinking processes in a variety of environments. At RAND and Carnegie Tech, studies were conducted that had human subjects think aloud in hopes of identifying human problem solving techniques and simulating them in GPS. NSS codified some human problem solving techniques such as means-end analysis, planning, and trial and error. Through the end of the 1950s, NSS produced improved versions of the IPL language and studied heuristic methods of decision making.

By 1960, when the JOHNNIAC was of insufficient computing power to support the level of computation needed, and IPL had been reprogrammed for the IBM 7090, List Processing (LISP), a high-level programming language had overtaken IPL as the language of choice for Artificial Intelligence research. Shaw’s interests had shifted towards attempting to simplify the use of computers for all types of computer users. Simon and Newell continued to study how they could simulate human cognitive processes on a computer. Until this point, a user would have to be adequately trained in programming or need assistance from a programmer to use a computer like JOHNNIAC. Shaw was interested in programming the JOHNNIAC so RAND staff could utilize the computer for small as well as large scientific computations. The JOHNNIAC was available for experimental research projects because RAND owned a newer IBM 7090 (acquired in 1960) which handled the bulk of RAND’s production computing load. Although JOHNNIAC was no longer state-of-the-art by this time, its major appeal was its reliability and capability for experimentation.

These factors were the impetus for the initiation of the JOHNNIAC Open-Shop System (JOSS) project in November 1960. JOSS was intended to be an easy to use, on-line, time sharing system. The JOSS research, conducted under the Information Processor Project, was formalized in 1959 as part of the RAND Computer Science Department and was heavily funded by the Air Force. The innovative character of JOSS was in the design of the list processing language, the ease of use for the non-programmer, its remote access capabilities, the establishment of an interactive environment between user and computer, and the capability for RAND scientists and engineers to use the computer without an intermediary programmer. It was hoped that the JOSS project would bridge the communication gap between man and machine. JOSS’s user language achieved this goal. It featured a small set of English verbs and algebraic symbols which did not need a programmer as intermediary between user and computer. During 1961-1962, Shaw selected the character set that would be used to write JOSS programs, its syntax, and grammar. The conversational environment included a Model B IBM Electric Typewriter. Tom Ellis and Mal Davis directed the hardware configurations and Ike Hehama, Allen Newell, and Keith Uncapher participated in the project discussions with Shaw.

The very limited JOSS experiments on the JOHNNIAC began in May 1963, with five consoles, one connected to the JOHNNIAC and four others located in the offices of various RAND staff. By June, a schedule of operations was in place and by January 1964, JOSS was fully implemented. The use of JOSS by RAND staff was higher than expected as users taught other users how to run the system. However, Shaw and the other designers worried that JOHNNIAC’s hardware placed limitations on speed and storage which might taint the evaluation of JOSS. In July 1964, a second version of JOSS was proposed on a more powerful computer. C.L. Baker was named project head, and Shaw focused on developing the programming language for JOSS II.

After accepting numerous bids to replace JOHNNIAC, a contract was signed with Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) promising the installation of a PDP-6 computer and thirty consoles at RAND. The installation was completed by October 31, 1965. At the Fall Joint Computer Conference in Las Vegas in December 1965, the first demonstration of remote use of JOSS II was given. JOHNNIAC was retired on February 18, 1966, with Willis Ware delivering a eulogy and Shaw loading a final JOSS I program. By the end of 1966, JOSS II was available to users 24 hours a day, seven days a week on the new PDP-6/JOSS computer, which had thirty times the speed and five times the storage capacity as the JOHNNIAC version. In April 1967, the maintenance and improvement of JOSS II was transferred from the development group to a small staff under G.W. Armending. In 1971, at age 49, Shaw left the RAND Corporation.

In 1971, Shaw took a one-year appointment as a Research Associate in the Information Science Department at the California Institute of Technology. In 1972, he began working as a consultant which he continued for the rest of his professional career. Much of his work in the 1970s and 1980s consisted of formulating new ideas on operations research, video games, man-machine interfaces, interactive computer systems, time-sharing, information architecture design, and artificial intelligence. During the 1980s, Shaw also became more involved in church-related activities.

Shaw’s work on creating the Information Processing Language in the 1950s and the JOSS program in the 1960s were the two major contributions he made to the fields of programming and artificial intelligence. His IPL-I programming language is one of the earliest examples of list processing languages now in widespread use. The JOSS program was one of the first easy-to use, remotely accessible, interactive programs that allowed non-programmers to utilize the power of a computer.

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Scope and Contents note

The John Clifford Shaw Papers contain reports, research notes, correspondence, memoranda, and diagrams documenting Shaw’s development of one of the earliest list processing languages (IPL) and an early interactive, time sharing program, the JOHNNIAC Open Shop System (JOSS). The collection also contains printed material on the RAND Corporation and the evolution of the artificial intelligence and electronic computer industry in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition, there is biographical material documenting Shaw’s personal interests, family, and academic career.

Series 1, Shaw’s Career at Rand, 1950-1971, documents Shaw's most significant work. The subseries are arranged by specific projects and illustrate his pioneering work on programming languages, interactive time-sharing systems, heuristic problem solving, logic programming, stored programs, and artificial intelligence. This work included his role in the development of the JOHNNIAC computer and programs such as the Logic Theorist (LT), General Problem Solver (GPS), and the JOHNNIAC Open-Shop System (JOSS).

The materials include technical reports, research notes, correspondence, memorandum, coding sequences, and system tests. In addition, there are reports documenting the collaborative nature of the NSS team’s work on human problem solving, computer simulation of human thinking, and complex information processing. The subject files in Series 1 document the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) role in the JOSS research and other work done by Shaw.

Series 2, Rand Environment, 1951-1986, is arranged into three subseries containing technical reports that document other computer related research being conducted at RAND during Shaw’s tenure. These materials are not directly related to his work, including reports documenting defense related research. The series contains memoranda and correspondence illustrating the internal workings and daily operations at RAND from 1950 to 1971 and various sets of annual reports, progress reports, and newsletters from 1960 to 1971. In addition, there are historical materials commemorating RAND anniversaries, profiles of the company, and indexes to RAND publications and abstracts.

Series 3, Computer Industry, 1947-1973, consists of printed matter that documents developments at other institutions and companies engaged in artificial intelligence and programming research. The printed matter includes reports, manuals, brochures, and reprints of articles about research by other institutions, companies, and individuals. Also, there are materials from trips, conferences and seminars attended by Shaw.

Series 4, Consulting Work, 1972-1990, comprises Shaw’s work after he left RAND in 1971. It consists of reports and reprints from companies and institutions for which Shaw worked or from those he saw as potential clients. Of particular interest are the research notes, on note cards and 8.5” x 11” paper that illuminate Shaw’s ideas and thoughts regarding artificial intelligence and programming languages during this period.

Series 5, Biographical Information, 1933-1993, consists of printed matter regarding Shaw’s life and accomplishments. It contains resumes, list of publications and lectures, salary history, and the outline for a book on JOSS. Material on Shaw’s personal life includes information about his family, personal correspondence with Herbert Simon, Allen Newell and his wife, Marian, Chuck Baker, Edward Feigenbaum, and correspondence from authors requesting information or comment on future publications. Additionally, there are reprints and clippings that reveal Shaw’s personal interests in political issues such as the Pentagon Papers, Watergate, the making of the hydrogen bomb, and Star Wars Defense Technology.

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Arrangement note

The collection is organized into five series.

Series 1: Shaw’s Career at Rand, 1950-1971

Subseries A: JOHNNIAC, 1950-1968

Subseries B: Logic Therorist [See also Complex Information Processing], 1956-1963

Subseries C: General Problem Solver (G.P.S.) and Heuristic Problem Solving, 1955-1967

Subseries D: Chess Program, 1954-1973

Subseries E: Complex Information Processing (C.I.P.), 1953-1972

Subseries F: Information Processing Languages (IPL), 1956-1977

Subseries G: JOHNNIAC Open Shop System (JOSS), 1959-1977

Subseries H: Subject Files, 1954-1971

Series 2: Rand Environment, 1951-1986

Subseries A: Related Papers and Reports (RM-Series), 1951-1972

Subseries B: Reports and Papers—General, 1949-1971

Subseries C: RAND Material, 1948-1988

Series 3: Computer Industry, 1947-1973

Series 4: Consulting Work, 1972-1990

Series 5: Biographical Information, 1933-1993

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Related Materials

Related Archival Materials note

Material in the Archives Center, National Museum of American History

Computer Oral History Collection, AC0196

Material in Other Institutions

Charles Babbage Institute

L.A. County Museum

For RAND reports see www.RAND.org

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Controlled Access Headings

Corporate Name(s)

  • ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency).
  • Association for Computing Machinery.
  • Dartmouth College.
  • Digital Equipment Corporation.
  • IBM (International Business Machines).
  • Massachusetts General Hospital.
  • UCRL (University of California Radiation Lab).

Genre(s)

  • Correspondence--1950-2000.
  • Diagrams
  • Memorandums--1950-1980
  • Notes--1950-1980
  • Technical reports--1950-1980

Geographic Name(s)

  • Cambridge (Mass.)
  • Palo Alto (Calif.)
  • Pittsburgh (Pa.)
  • Santa Monica (Calif.)--1950-1980

Subject(s)

  • Computational linguistics
  • Computer Industry--1950-1980--Soviet Union
  • Computer industry--1950-1980--United States
  • Computer programmers
  • Computers--military applications
  • Decision making--mathematical models
  • GPS (General Problem Solver)
  • Heuristic programming
  • Iph (Computer Program Language)
  • Job Control Language (Computer program language)
  • List processing (Electronic computers)
  • Logic machines
  • Logic programming
  • Mathematical models
  • Mathematicians
  • Online data processing
  • Problem solving--Data processing
  • Programming languages (electronic computers)--1950-70
  • System analysts
  • Time-sharing computer systems

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Collection Inventory

 Series 1: Shaw’s Career at Rand, 1950-1971

 Subseries A: JOHNNIAC, 1950-1968

Box Folder

Programming Manual, 1955 July

1 1

Operators Manual, 1956 March

1 2

Floating-Point Interpretive System, 1958 August

1 3

Easy Fox, 1958-1961

1 4

Assembler, 1962, 1964

1 5

JOHNNIAC Manifesto, 1958

1 6

JOHNNIAC Eulogy, 1966

1 7

History of JOHNNIAC, 1968

1 8

Tentative List of JOHNNIAC orders, undated

59 1
Map-case Drawer Folder

JOHNNIAC Block Diagram, 1953

2 15 1

Logical Flow Diagram for JOHNNIAC Control, 1953

2 15 2
Box Folder

Memorandum and Notes, Console [See also box 53], 1952-1958

1 9

Memorandum and Notes, Procedures for Operation, 1955-1960

1 10

Memorandum and Notes, Printer, 1956-1957

1 11

Memorandum and Notes, Programming Files (J-Files), 1955-1959

1 12

Memorandum and Notes, Programming Files (J-Files), 1955-1959

2 1-3

Memorandum and Notes, JOHNNIAC Simplified Systems, 1955

2 4

Memorandum and Notes, Magnetic Tape Storage, 1955

2 5

Memorandum and Notes, 701 Assembly program, 1955

2 6

Memorandum and Notes, 701 Library Programs, [1955?]

2 7

Procedures Staff Memos, 1953-1954

2 8

Operators Hours and Scheduling, 1953

2 9

 Subseries B: Logic Theorist [See also Complex Information Processing], 1956-1963

Box Folder

Reports, 1956-1958, 1963

3 1-3

Notes, 1956-1957

3 4-7

 Subseries C: General Problem Solver (G.P.S.) and Heuristic Problem Solving, 1955-1967

Box Folder

Reports, 1955-1967

4 1-9

Rough Draft of Human Problem Solving, 1967

5 1-2

Coding Experiments [Thinking Aloud], 1957-1961

5 3-5

Programming Sequences, Printouts, [1956-1958?]

5 6

 Subseries D: Chess Program, 1954-1973

Box Folder

Reports, 1954-1964, 1973

6 1-4

Memos, Notes and Correspondence, 1954

6 5-7

Demonstrations, 1959-1960, 1966

6 8

Chess Log, 1958

6 9

Programming Sequences Printouts, 1959-1960

7 1-4

Chess Board, undated

7 5

 Subseries E: Complex Information Processing (C.I.P.) [Also contains material on Heuristic Problem Solving], 1953-1972

Box Folder

Reports, 1953-1957

7 6-8
Box

Reports, 1958

8
Box Folder

Reports, 1961-1972

9 1-6

Notes, 1957-1961

9 7-8

Patent Files (IPL, RAND Tablet), 1959-1968

57 1-2

 Subseries F: Information Processing Languages (IPL), 1956-1977

Box Folder

Reports, 1957-1967

10 1-8

Notes/Memos, 1956-1960

11 1-5

Teletype log of online conversations between Shaw and Newell, 1960

11 6-7

Programming Sequences, Printouts, 1956-1959

12 1-4

Historical, 1971, 1977

12 5

 Subseries G: JOHNNIAC Open-Shop System (JOSS), 1959-1977

Box Folder

Reports, 1961-1965

12 6-9

Reports, 1966-1967

13 1-7

Reports, 1967-1970

14 1-4

User Guides, 1967, 1970

14 5

Manuals, 1964-1965, 1974-1975

14 6

JOSS Notebook (User Manual), 1967 August

15 1

JOSS: Console Design (Report), 1967

15 2

JOSS Notes, undated

15 3

Memos and Correspondence-General, 1962-1970

16 1-5

Memos and Correspondence-Air Force Contract (see Also Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)), 1965-1970

16 6

Memos and Correspondence-IBM Proposal and Symposium, 1964-1965

16 7

Memos and Correspondence-Time-sharing Systems, 1963-1964

16 8

Memos and Correspondence-Japanese, visit from, 1967

16 9

Memos and Correspondence-Last days of JOSS, 1966

16 10

Memos and Correspondence-Trademark/Copyright, 1967-1970

16 11

Memos and Correspondence-JOSS 360/Network

17 1

Memos and Correspondence-Character Sets and Keyboards, 1969

17 2
Map-case Drawer Folder

JOSS Language Poster Precis, 1967

2 15 3
Box Folder

Research Notes and Memos-General, 1960-1964

17 3-4

Research Notes and Memos-JOSS Log, 1962-1966

17 5

Research Notes and Memos-H-Notes (Hardware), 1959-1970

17 6

Research Notes and Memos-FJCC (Fall Joint Computer Conference), 1964

17 7

Research Notes and Memos-Evaluation, 1964-1966

17 8

Research Notes and Memos-JOSS II, 1964-1967

17 9

Research Notes and Memos-JOSS Notes/Functions, 1961-1963

17 10

Systems Tests and Programming Sequences, 1962-1970

18 1-5

Video, 1964

18 6

Photographs, 1964-1967

18 7

Clippings, 1960-1970

18 8

Historical, 1970-1977

19 9

 Subseries H: Subject Files, 1954-1971

Box Folder

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) Memos-General, 1962-1969

19 1

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)-Notes, General, 1965-1971

19 2-3

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)-Artificial Intelligence, 1962-1971

19 4

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)-ISPL (Info. Science Program Language), 1970-1971

19 5

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)-List Processing, 1966-1968

19 6

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)-Network, 1970-1971

19

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)-Program Organization, 1970-1971

19 8

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)-Translator, 1966-1967

20 1

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)-User Language, 1965-1968

20 2

Artificial Intelligence [Notes on control schemes, agents, language, judgment, representation, graphics], 1968-1970

20 3-4

Bibliographies, 1960-1970

20 5

CAL and BLISS (JOSS-like systems), 1966-1970

20 6

CASAP (Computer Assisted Specification of Algorithmic Processes), 1968-1969

20 7

Clippings (DOT and FAA), 1968, 1969

20 8

Demonstrations (Graphic Input and Stylus Tablet), 1963

20 9

Giant Computers/Brains, 1960-1961

20 10

Glossaries, 1954-1964

20 11

IC 9000 and ISPL Notes, 1970

21 1

JCL (Job Control Language), 1969

21 2

Massachusetts General Hospital Computer Project (MUMPS), 1964-1979

21 3-7

Massachusetts General Hospital Computer Project (MUMPS), 1964-1979

22 1

Mathematical Model/NIH, 1969-1970

22 2-3

Microprogramming, 1956, 1960

22 4

New York Fire Department and New York Police Department, 1968-1969

22 5

Program Compatibility, 1967-1968

22 6

Project for the Advancement of Coding Techniques (PACT), 1954-1959

22 7

Security Project, 1971

22 8

Timesharing, c. 1960s

22 9

University of California Radiation Laboratory (UCRL), 1954-1955

23 1-3
Map-case Drawer Folder

University of California Radiation Laboratory (UCRL), 1954-1955

2 15 4
Box Folder

Critical Path Method, 1969

23 4

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 Series 2: RAND Environment, 1948-1986

 Subseries A: Related Papers and Reports (RM-Series), 1951-1972

Box Folder

Mathematical Tables for Desk Calculators, 1951

24 1

Monte Carlo Program, 1954

24 2

Digital Computing, 1954

24 3

Machine Translation, 1957-1958

24 4

Soviet Cybernetics, 1961

24 5

Information Systems, 1962

24 6

Computational Algorithms, 1962

24 7

Programming Languages, 1962

25 1

Military Applications, 1962

25 2

Programming Applications, 1962-1963

25 3

Computer Simulation, 1963

25 4

Data Systems, 1962

25 5

Military Application, 1963

25 6

Military Applications, 1962-1963

26 1

Soviet Cybernetics, 1963

26 2

Assembly Systems, 1963

26 3

Military Applications, 1963-1964

26 4-5

List Processing, 1963

26 6

Computational Linguistics, 1964, 1966

26 7

Recognition, 1964

26 8

Complex Information Processing, 1964

27 1

Graphical Communication, 1964-1965

27 2

Automated Space Checkout Systems, 1964-1965

27 3

Military Applications, 1965

27 4

Computational Linguistics, 1965-1966

27 5

Programming Languages, 1965

27 6

Software Research, 1965

28 1

Man-Machine Communications, 1964, 1966

28 2

Scientific Application of Computers, 1964, 1966

28 3

Data Retrieval and Storage, 1965

28 4

Computational Linguistics, 1966

28 5

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 1966, 1970

28 6

Character Recognition, 1964, 1966

28 7

Military Applications, 1965, 1967

28 8

Data Retrieval and Storage, 1966-1967

28 9

Soviet Cybernetics, 1967

29 1

Man-Machine Communications, 1968

29 2

ARPA, 1969-1970

29 3

Air Force Space Mission, 1970-1980

29 4

 Subseries B: Reports and Papers, General, 1949-1971

Box Folder

IBM Setups, 1949-1950

29 5-6

Rational Approaches in High-Speed Computing, 1949

29 7

Digital Computing Report, 1953

29 8

Assembler, 1956-1958

29 9

Heuristic Problem Solving and Programming, 1958-1959

30 1-2

Control and Support Systems, Air Force, 1959-1960

30 3

Intelligent Machines, 1960-1961

30 4

Programming Languages, 1961

30 5

R.V. Jones, Lecture by, 1962

30 6

Games on a Computer, 1965

30 7

Analysis for Military Decisions, 1966

30 8

Future of Computers, 1966-1967

31 1

Soviet Cybernetics, 1967-1968

31 2

Data Automation, 1967-1968

31 3

Systems Analysis and Policy Planning: Applications in Defense, 1968

31 4

Programming Languages, 1968-1969

31 5

Computing Power and Dynamics, 1967, 1969

31 6

Computer Research at RAND, 1970

31 7

Soviet Cybernetics, 1968-1971

31 8

R.V. Jones, 1971

31 9

 Subseries C: RAND Material, 1948-1988

Box Folder

Internal RAND Memos, 1948-1971

32 1-6

Index of Publications, 1962

33 1

Supplement to Index, 1963

33 2

Index, 1968-1974

33 3

Cumulative Index, 1963-1974

33 4

Index, 1978-1980

33 5

Correspondence, 1961-1968

34 1-5

Annual Reports, 1965-1969

34 6-7

Historical, 1951-1988

35 1-4

40th Anniversary History, 1988

35 5

RAND Profile in Time Magazine, 1959

59 2

Grant Applications, 1971

36 1

Newsletters, 1956-1970

36 2-4

Newsletters, RAND Management, 1970-1971

57 3

Progress Reports, 1960-1961, 1966-1968

36 5-6

Staff Directories, 1971-1972

37 1

Clippings, undated

37 2

Ephemera-RAND Envelopes, undated

57 4

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 Series 3: State of the Computer Industry, 1946-1973

Box Folder

Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 1953, 1965-1974

38 1-2

Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Special Publication, 1971

59 4

Burroughs, 1962, 1966, 1979

38 3

California Institute of Technology, 1953, 1963-1971

38 4-5

Carnegie Institute of Technology, 1966-1982

39 1-2

Dartmouth College, 1955, 1959-1965

39 3

Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), 1963-1970

39 4

IBM, 1948-1961

39 5

IBM, 1964-1972

40 1-2

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.), 1953-1966

40 3-5

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.), 1960-1969

41 1-2

University of Pennsylvania, 1946

41 3-4

Stanford Artificial Intelligence Project, 1963-1968

41 5

Stanford Artificial Intelligence Project, 1968-1973

42 1-3

System Development Corporation (SDC), 1960-1970

42 4-8

System Development Corporation (SDC), 1965-1971

43 1-3

Miscellaneous, 1955-1960

43 4-5

Miscellaneous, 1965-1973

44 1-2

Reprints, 1946-1961

44 3-6

Reprints, 1962-1970

45 1-5

Reprints, 1970-1975

46 1-5

Trips and Seminars, 1953-1972

47 1-3

Time-sharing Supplement from Computer World, 1970 March 25

59 2

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 Series 4: Consulting Work, 1972-1989

Box Folder

Abacus Programming Corporation, 1977-1979

48 1

American Airlines, 1972

48 2-3

Bally, 1975-1982

48 4-7

California Institute of Technology (Jet Propulsion Lab), 1972-1973

49 1-2

CLINFO, 1973

49 3

Information Automation, 1973-1974

49 4-6

Information Science Institute (ISI), 1972-1974

49 7

Information Science Institute (ISI), 1972-1974

50 1-4

PeCos - Personal Computers, 1979

50 5

Personal Computing, 1977-1980

50 6

PROMISE, 1973-1975

50 7

RAND, 1972-1973

51 1

Clippings (Artificial intelligence, code-breaking, calculators), 1980s

51 2-3

Notes, 1971-1976

51 4-6

Notes, 1977-1989

53 1-5
Box

Note Cards, 1976-1988

53

Note Cards, 1976-1988

54

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 Series 5: Biographical Information, 1933-1993

Box Folder

Resumes, salary history, benefits, list of publications and lectures, 1970s

55 1

Personal log, 1969

55 2

Job search, 1980s, late 1970s

55 3

Actuarial files, 1947-1950

55 4

Herbert Simon and Allen Newell, biographical, 1958-1993

55 5

History of JOSS, outline for possible book, 1978

55 6

Transcripts, applications, commencement program for Fullerton Junior College and UCLA, late 1940s

55 7

Personal and Family clippings about children's achievements, driver's license, holiday cards from family, Boy Scout material, 1945-1988

55 8

California License plate titled JOSS I, 1977

59 3

Personal Correspondence [Mostly from C.L. and Alice Baker, Herbert and Dorothy Simon, Ed and Nancy Feigenbaum, Allen Newell's wife, Paul Armer], 1960s-1980s

55 9-10

Requests for comments re: various publications from Jean Sammett, Shirley Marks, H. Simon, Pamela McCorduck, Noah Prywes, Harry Gray, and George Miller, 1959-1990

56 1-2

Church materials, 1965, 1984

56 3

Reprints/Notes/Clippings Areas of interest to Shaw [professional and political, including RAND, Pentagon Papers, Vietnam, making of the H-Bomb, artificial intelligence, and notes titled "It's a Small World that correlates people he knew and their involvement in political scandals], 1958-1983

56 4-6

Newsletter-Charles Babbage Institute, 1980-1990

56 7

Simon, Herbert, and James G. March. Organizations. New York: Wiley. First edition, signed by Simon., 1958

58 1

Simon, Herbert. The New Science of Management Decision. New York: Harper. First edition, signed by Simon., 1960

58 2

Simon, Herbert. The Shape of Automation for Men and Management. New York: Harper and Row. First edition, signed by Simon., 1965

58 3

McCorduck, Pamela. Machines Who Think: A Personal Inquiry into the History and Prospects of Artificial Intelligence. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company., 1979

58 4

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