Baugh & Sons Company Glass Plate Negatives and Agricultural Ephemera
NMAH.AC.1098

Administrative Information

Publication Information

Archives Center, National Museum of American History 2011

Smithsonian Institution
P.O. Box 37012
Suite 1100, MRC 601
Washington, D.C., 20013-7012
Phone: 202-633-3270
Email: archivescenter@si.edu

Conditions Governing Access note

The collection is open for research use.

Conditions Governing Access note

The collection is open for research use.

Conditions Governing Use note

Copyright held by the Smithsonian Institution. Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning intellectual property rights. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Custodial History note

The collection was transferred to the Archives Center by the Division of Work and Industry in 2008.

Immediate Source of Acquisition note

Collected for the museum by the Division of Work and Industry, National Museum of American History in 1966.

Processing Information note

Processed by Franklin A. Robinson, Jr., archives specialist, February, 2011, supervised by Vanessa Broussard Simmons, archivist.

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Summary Information

Repository
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Creator
Baugh Fertilizer Company,. (Location of Meeting--Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; )
Title
Baugh & Sons Company Glass Plate Negatives and Agricultural Ephemera,
ID
NMAH.AC.1098
Date
1903-1914
Extent
1.0 Cubic feet (3 boxes)
Language
English
Abstract
This collection consists of glass plate negatives and advertising ephemera created by the Baugh & Sons Company, also known as the Baugh Chemical Company, manufacturers of a variety of agricultural fertilizers from 1855-1963.

Preferred Citation note

Baugh & Sons Company Collection, 1903-1914, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, box number X, folder number XX, digital file number XXXXXXX

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Biographical/Historical note

Reportedly one of the oldest and largest fertilizer manufacturers in the United States during the late nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries, Baugh & Sons Company was founded in 1855 by John Pugh Baugh (?-1882) and two of his sons, Edwin P. Baugh (?-1888) and Daniel Baugh (1836-1921) in Chester County, Pennsylvania. Some company materials claim a founding date for the “House of Baugh” in 1817, which is probably based on the fact that the family was initially engaged in the tanning industry near Paoli, Pennsylvania. Baugh manufactured a variety of ground bone-based agriculture fertilizers that were tailored for a wide range of crops. They later expanded into the manufacture of animal charcoal, glue, and chemicals. Baugh’s corporate offices were located at the Delaware River Chemical Works on South Delaware Avenue in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania with offices in Baltimore, Maryland and Norfolk, Virginia. Baugh operated manufacturing plants in Baltimore, Maryland at Canton in Baltimore harbor; Oneida, New York; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on the Delaware River at the foot of Morris and Moore Streets; Canton, Ohio; Galveston, Texas, and Norfolk, Virginia at Burton’s Point.

A visitor to the Delaware River works reportedly wrote this description of the plant, “I have just inspected the Baugh Fertilizer Works on the Delaware River. I saw many large buildings, much machinery and numerous workmen. There was business activity everywhere; but, more than anything else, I saw bones. The whole placed suggested animal bones. There were bones in heaps, in sheds, on carts, on ships. There were bones whole and bones crushed; and bone ground, ready for shipment. I learned that the annual sales of Baugh’s brands aggregate nearly 100,000 tons; which would be six thousand freight-car loads. I was told that these bones came from everywhere: from North America and from South America; from the West Indies and even from the East Indies. It was intimated that the present big bone heaps would soon be bigger, owing to incoming cargoes, but the statement made no impression on me.” Baugh’s Farmer’s Almanac for 1903, page 14.

By the early twentieth century Baugh products were widely available from a network of independently owned farm supply stores. Baugh carried trade brands for each of its primary regions in Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Norfolk. Baugh also exported products to England, France, Germany, and other countries. In its yearly almanacs they suggested the appropriate brand of Baugh fertilizer for specific crops and in some almanacs printed farmer testimony as well as photographs of crops grown with Baugh fertilizers.

Baugh Chemical Company was purchased by Kerr-McGee Oil Industries, Incorporated in 1963. Kerr-McGee ceased to exist as an independent entity in 2006 when purchased by Houston, Texas-based Anadarko Petroleum Corporation.

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Scope and Contents note

The collection consists of glass plate negatives documenting various operations of Baugh & Sons Company. The collection also includes trade literature, advertising ephemera in the form of pocket notebooks, and farmer's almanacs published by Baugh & Sons Company.

Series 1, Glass Plate Negatives, undated is arranged by size, 5x7 or 8x10. The glass plate negatives came to the National Museum of American History (NMAH) in 1966 from the National Park Service (NPS), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania office. The glass plates, depicting sailing ships and wharf scenes, were given to the Division of Transportation, NMAH. The plates are not dated but appear to be early twentieth century. The glass plates may be ones used for the company publication, History of the House of Baugh, published circa 1927 or used in one of the many almanacs published by Baugh.

The scenes depicted in the various plates center around the company’s wharf. Images of ships, tall masted and freighter, at the company dock are included as well as various staged scenes of laborers offloading animal bones (the basis of many of Baugh’s products). There are also views of the factory complex from the Delaware River, showing an overhead rail system and large wharf side fertilizer hoppers with the company logo painted on at least one of them. The William J. McCahan Sugar Refining building may be seen in the background of some of the plates. These plates have been scanned.

Series 2, Advertising Ephemera, 1903-1914, undated is arranged chronologically. This series contains one piece of trade literature, seven pieces of advertising ephemera in the form of pocket memoranda, and three farmer’s almanacs published by Baugh & Sons Company in the early twentieth century. The 1908 issue of the almanac contained a small black and white individual photograph of the Boston & Bangor Steam Ship Company building in Hampden, Maine.

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Arrangement note

The collection is arranged into two series. Series 1, Glass Plate Negatives, undated Series 2, Advertising Ephemera, 1903-1914, undated

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Controlled Access Headings

Corporate Name(s)

  • Baugh Chemical Company.
  • Delaware River Chemical Works.
  • Kerr-McGee Corporation.
  • William J. McCahan Sugar Refining.

Genre(s)

  • Almanacs
  • Glass plate negatives
  • Photographs--Black-and-white negatives--Glass--1910-1920
  • Pocket notebooks

Geographic Name(s)

  • Delaware River (Penn.)
  • Paoli (Penn.)
  • Philadelphia (Penn.)

Personal Name(s)

  • Baugh, Daniel
  • Baugh, Edwin P.
  • Baugh, John P.

Subject(s)

  • Conveying machinery
  • Conveyor belts
  • Fertilizer industry
  • Shipping
  • Silos
  • Wharves

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Physical Characteristics and Technical Requirements note

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Digital reference surrogates exist.

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Collection Inventory

Series 1, Glass Plate Negatives, undated 

AC1098.0000001, Tall masted ship and tugboat at dock with elevated rail tracks, “Independent Pier Co., Pier 34 South Wharfage – Lighterage Stevedoring” printed on tugboat Hercules, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   1 1

AC1098.0000002, Two tall masted ships, one steel hull, ship, Amcross, at dock with elevated rail tracks, barge Arctic, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   1 2

AC1098-0000003, Tall masted, steel hull, clipper ship, Edon. Norge, at dock with elevated rail tracks and two fertilizer hoppers, one with “Baugh’s Fertilizers Established 1855” and the company logo painted on it. “North Western Line” printed on building in the distance, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   1 3

AC1098-0000004, Dockside scene, horse and cart with two men offloading animal bones into the cart, tall masted ship at dock, rail car in distance, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   1 4

AC1098-0000005, Exterior factory scene, building number 3, horse and cart with two men offloading animal bones into a huge pile, two men on upper catwalk with pushcarts, rail car at right, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   1 5

AC1098-0000006, Exterior factory scene, elevated conveyor above wharf with huge pile of animal bones, upper masts of a ship at dock can be seen, “THE WM. J. McCAHAN SUGAR REFINING Co. 1892” painted on building at left, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   1 6

AC1098-0000007, Exterior factory scene, six silos trackside, Pennsylvania railroad car partially visible in the distance, dump truck also visible, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   1 7

AC1098-0000008, On deck, tall masted ship at dock with elevated rail tracks and a fertilizer hopper with auger going onto the boat, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   1 8

AC1098,0000009, Steel hulled, masted freighter, Bay Head, at dock with elevated rail tracks and two fertilizer hoppers, one with “Baugh’s Fertilizers Established 1855” and the company logo painted on it, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   1 9

AC1098-0000010, Steel hulled, masted freighter, Bay Head painted on the bridge, at dock with elevated rail tracks and two fertilizer hoppers, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   1 10

AC1098-0000011, On deck, tall masted ship at dock with elevated rail tracks and a fertilizer hopper with auger going onto the boat, factory complex in the background (reverse angle of AC1098.0000008), undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   1 11

AC1098-0000012, Horse and cart with two men posing beside a huge pile of animal bones under an elevated catwalk, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   1 12

AC1098-0000013, Seven men, on deck, masted, steel hull ship at dock with elevated rail tracks and two fertilizer hoppers, one with “Baugh’s Fertilizers Established 1855” and the company logo painted on it, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   1 13

AC1098-0000014, Exterior factory scene, elevated conveyor above wharf with huge pile of animal bones, “THE WM. J. McCAHAN SUGAR REFINING Co. 1892” painted on building in the distance, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   1 14

AC1098-0000015, Exterior factory complex scene from the river, elevated conveyor above wharf with pile of animal bones, brick industrial smokestack with “BAUGH” painted on it. Two barges in the foreground “VICTOR PHILA” and “DONALDSON No. 16 PHILADELPHIA”, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   1 15

AC1098-0000016, Wharf scene taken from the river with elevated rail tracks and two fertilizer hoppers, one with “Baugh’s Fertilizers Established 1855” and the company logo painted on it. “PRIVATE WHARF VESSELS KEEP OFF” painted on the elevated tracks. Ships and ship repair company at left, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   1 16

AC1098-0000017, At wharf with elevated rail tracks and close-up of one fertilizer hopper with “Baugh’s Fertilizers Established 1855” and the company logo painted on it, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   2 1

AC1098-0000018, Tall masted clipper ship, Mannie Swan, at dock with elevated rail tracks and one fertilizer hopper, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   2 2

AC1098-0000019, Wharf scene with elevated rail tracks and one fertilizer hopper, factory complex in the background, water tower, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   2 3

AC1098-0000020, Cargo shed, men offloading/loading sacks, “heads and horns” nearby, two rail cars, Baltimore & Ohio and the Canadian Pacific, pushcart, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   2 4

AC1098-0000021, Tall masted clipper ship at wharf with elevated rail tracks and one fertilizer hopper with “Baugh’s Fertilizers Established 1855” and the company logo painted on it, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   2 5

AC1098-0000022, At wharf with elevated rail tracks and close-up of one fertilizer hopper with “Baugh’s Fertilizers Established 1855” and the company logo painted on it, rigging of a tall ship to the left, tugboat and steamer in distance, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   2 6

AC1098-0000023, Exterior wharf and factory scene, men posing on a barge while offloading animal bones, “THE WM. J. McCAHAN SUGAR REFINING Co. 1892” painted on building in the distance, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   2 7

AC1098-0000024, Exterior wharf and factory scene, men posing on a barge while offloading animal bones, rail boxcar in background “N.Y.C. & H.R.” [New York City & Hudson Railroad], undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   2 8

AC1098-0000025, Wharf scene with elevated rail tracks, rail bridge, and one fertilizer hopper, factory complex in the background, water tower, two men in a row boat, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   2 9

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Series 2, Advertising, Ephemera, 1903-1914, undated 

Baugh's Farmer's Almanac, 1903 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   3 1

Baugh's Animal Bone Fertilizers, 1905 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   3 2

Baugh's Farmer's Almanac, 1908 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   3 3

Baugh's Farmer's Almanac, 1914 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   3 4

Pocket memoranda, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   3 5-8

Paper copies of scanned glass plate negatives, undated 


  Box Folder
Graphic materials   3 9

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