Guide to the Maid of Cotton Records
NMAH.AC.1176

Administrative Information

Repository Information

Archives Center, National Museum of American History, 2012

P.O. Box 37012
 Suite 1100, MRC 601
 Washington, D.C., 20013-7012
 Phone: 202-633-3270
 archivescenter@si.edu

Conditions Governing Access note

The collection is open for research use.

Conditions Governing Use note

Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Immediate Source of Acquisition note

This collection was donated by the Cotton Museum at the Memphis Cotton Exchange on October 14, 2009.

Processing Information note

Processed by Franklin A. Robinson, Jr., archives specialist and Theresa Worden, intern, 2010-2011, and Shana Oltmans, 2010, supervised by Vanessa Broussard Simmons, archivist.

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Summary Information

Repository
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Creator
Cotton Museum (Memphis, Tennessee).
Creator
National Cotton Council.
Title
Maid of Cotton Records
ID
NMAH.AC.1176
Date
1939-1993
Extent
38.00 Cubic feet; 90 boxes
Language
English
Language of Materials note
Some material in French, Korean, Japanese, Chinese, Philippino, and Thai.
Abstract
The Maid of Cotton (MOC) beauty pageant was sponsored by the National Cotton Council, Memphis Cotton Carnival, and the Cotton Exchanges of Memphis, New York, and New Orleans from 1939-1993. The contest was held annually in Memphis, Tennessee until the National Cotton Council and Cotton Council International moved to Dallas, Texas. Beginning with the 1985 pageant (held December 1984) the competition was held in Dallas. The pageant was discontinued in 1993 due to lack of funds, a sponsor, and changes in marketing strategies. The records include files on contestants, photographs, and scrapbooks.

Preferred Citation note

Maid of Cotton Records, 1939-1993, undated, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution

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Biographical/Historical note

The Maid of Cotton pageant began in 1939. The annual pageant was sponsored by the National Cotton Council (NCC), Memphis Cotton Carnival, and the Cotton Exchanges of Memphis, New York, and New Orleans. The pageant was held in Memphis, Tennessee, in conjunction with the Carnival until the 1980s.

In mid-December every year the NCC released a list of contestants. Contestants were required to have been born in one of the cotton-producing states: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, New Mexico, North and South Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas or Virginia. They might have also been born in the cotton-producing counties of Alexander, Jefferson, Massac, Pulaski, Williamson or Madison, Illinois or in Clark or Nye counties of Nevada. There were usually twenty contestants each year.

Contestants were judged on personality, good manners, intelligence, and family background as well as beauty and an ability to model. A Top Ten were chosen and then a Top Five, and finally second and first runners up and a winner. Winners served as goodwill and fashion ambassadors of the cotton industry in a five-month, all-expense tour of American cities. In the mid-1950s the tour expanded globally. In the late 1950s a Little Miss Cotton pageant was begun but lasted only until 1963 before being discontinued. In the mid-1980s Dallas,Texas took over the pageant, in conjunction with the NCC and its overseas division, Cotton Council International. In 1986, to bolster interest and participation, the NCC eliminated the rule requiring contestants to be born in a cotton-producing state. The pageant was discontinued in 1993, one of the reasons being that Cotton Inc. stopped contributing scholarship money as well as waning public interest and changing marketing strategies. (pageantopolis.com website accessed April 2012.)

"The National Cotton Council is the official trade association of the cotton industry. The NCC was founded in 1939 to promote the interests of cotton farmers, ginners, brokers, and manufacturers from the Southern, cotton-growing states. Its mission evolved over the years as new uses for cotton and its byproducts have been found; as competition from synthetic fibers developed; as fashion tastes changed; as government regulation increased; and in response to foreign competition in both farming and manufacturing . The NCC website states that its modern-day mission is “to ensure the ability of all U.S. cotton industry segments to compete effectively and profitably in the raw cotton, oilseed and U.S.-manufactured product markets at home and abroad.” Throughout its existence, the NCC has been the contact point for issues affecting its members, legislators in Congress, allied agribusiness, and consumers.

One of the first NCC programs undertaken by to promote the versatility and value of cotton to consumers was the Maid of Cotton program, begun in 1939. This consisted of a beauty pageant open to young women born in one of the seventeen southern cotton growing states. The contestants were evaluated on the basis of beauty, personality, poise, good manners, and intelligence; a family background in cotton production was especially helpful. The girls had to apply for selection to compete in the program. At first this was done directly to the Memphis-based program but eventually a system of state Maid of Cotton programs were established, whose winners went on to compete in the national Maid of Cotton contest. The Maid of Cotton received numerous prizes, whose value and variety tended to increase over the years. In the late 1940s, the program added a scholarship prize, probably in emulation of the Miss America contest. The Maid of Cotton pageant was held each December in Memphis as part of that city’s Cotton Carnival festivities. The winner was featured prominently on her own float in the Cotton Carnival parade, was feted at prestigious Carnival events, and was treated as royalty wherever she went. Selection as the Maid of Cotton carried a high degree of status and mature ladies in the South to this day proudly identify themselves as such.

The Maid of Cotton’s main function, once crowned, was to serve as a goodwill and fashion ambassador for cotton; any publicity she gained was automatically positive publicity for the cotton industry. Accompanied by an NCC-appointed manager, the Maids embarked on an all-expenses-paid tour. The Maids appeared in full regalia at public events such as county fairs, parades, and holiday events; starred in fashion shows featuring all-cotton outfits; gave speeches to local chambers of commerce and other groups; and in general were the attractive personification of the cotton industry wherever they went. At first, the tours concentrated on the cotton states but they were later extended to major cities outside the cotton belt and came to include visits to legislators on Capitol Hill. Beginning in the mid-1950s, the Maids began touring internationally and in the 1970s and 1980s they frequently headed up fashion shows in Asia.

Over time, however, the publicity value of an industry-anointed beauty queen lost its attraction both to the public and – more importantly – to the press. In addition, the role of cotton in the South, particularly in Memphis, declined. In 1986 the contest was moved from Memphis to Dallas. Eventually the cotton industry withdrew its support for the program’s scholarships; the 1993 Maid of Cotton was the last to be crowned." (Orr, Craig. "NMAH Collections Committee", memorandum, 2009)

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Scope and Contents note

The collection contains the records for the Maid of Cotton pageant (1939-1993) sponsored by the National Cotton Council (NCC), Memphis Cotton Carnival, and the Cotton Exchanges of Memphis, New York, and New Orleans. The collection consists of approximately 38 cubic feet of records created by the NCC in the course of operating the Maid of Cotton contest from 1939 to 1993. The records form the complete archive of this fifty-four year program. The records include administrative files, scrapbooks, photographs, slides, and videotapes.

"One of the main values of the Maid of Cotton collection is its completeness. These are all of the official records of the program, documenting all of its activities throughout its entire existence from 1939 to 1993. As such, it represents a truly unique documentary record and opportunity for research.

Beauty contests have been the subject of serious scholarly study for many years. A search of WorldCat reveals over fifty books on the topic. Scholars have found the subject to be a fruitful springboard from which to study a wide variety of topics, primarily centered around issues of beauty, femininity, culture values, national identity, racism, and feminism.

Beauty pageants serve as symbols that reflect the values of American culture. For example, pageant winners have symbolized the advances made by formerly disenfranchised groups. Vanessa Williams, the first African American to win the Miss America crown (1983), rewrote the definition of beauty in America, and Heather Whitestone, the first deaf Miss America (1995), proved that physical handicaps need not hold anyone back from their dreams. Pageants can provide a focus for the re-examination of our society and culture. The tragic murder of six-year-old Jonbenet Ramsey in 1996 provided a window into what author Susan Anderson calls “the extravagant world of child beauty pageants,” that led to public debate about issues of motherhood and adolescence.

In addition, beauty pageants can be viewed in advertising terms: they are the ultimate expression of the tried and true adage that sex sells. All pageants have sponsors and all sponsors want their products to be seen in a positive light. Some sponsors are content to contribute goods and services to the contestants – a new car, a trip to the Caribbean, a fur coat, etc. – so that their generosity can be noted in the publicity surrounding the contest. Others prefer to sponsor the entire program. The Miss Universe contest, for example, was created in 1952 by the Jantzen Company specifically to enable the company to showcase pretty girls wearing its swimsuits. Jantzen abruptly withdrew its previous support of the Miss America pageant when Yolande Betbeze refused to wear a bathing suit during her reign as Miss America 1951. The Maid of Cotton pageant is a highly organized, year-long, very visible public relations program that allows the National Cotton Council to showcase the wonders of cotton through the wonders of young beauty queens. Attractive young women are the perfect vehicle for promoting fashionable fabrics made from cotton.

Cotton – the product at the heart of the Maid of Cotton program – has been central to American economic and political history. NMAH’s collecting and research interests reflect this. The Division of Work & Industry contains numerous cotton-related objects and much documentation on the subject. The Archives Center holds several cotton-related collections, including the Peter Paul Haring Papers, 1897-1935, documenting Haring’s development of cotton picking machinery; the Lockwood Greene collection of thousands of engineering drawings, many of which were for textile mills; the Robert L. Shurr Script and Scrapbook for a 1939 biographical motion picture on Dr. George Washington Carver; and the Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records, 1985-1992, which documents modern cotton farming through photography and oral history interviews. In addition, all aspects of cotton production, from farm to factory to finished goods, are documented in several hundred photos in the Underwood & Underwood Agricultural Photonegative Collection, the Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, the Division of Work & Industry Lantern Slide Collection, and the Donald Sultner-Welles Photograph Collection. Cultural aspects of cotton can be discovered in both the Warshaw Collection of Business Americana and in the DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music." (Orr, Craig. "NMAH Collections Committee", memorandum, 2009)

Series 1, Organizational and Pageant Files, 1939-1993, undated., is arranged chronologically by year. Files may contain correspondence, photographs, news clippings, radio commercial scripts, tear sheets, itineraries, trip reports, sheet music, legal documents, waivers, and permissions, and other material related to the Maid of Cotton pageant for that year. Files may also contain subsequent personal information on the Maid of Cotton for that year, for example change of address, news clippings, and the like. This series contains finalist files, trip files and tour report files.

Series 2, Photographs, Slides, and Transparencies, 1939-1994, undated., is arranged chronologically by year. This series contains photographs, slides, and transparencies related to the Maid of Cotton and her travels throughout the United States and overseas. It also contains photographs of the fashions worn by each Maid.

Series 3, Scrapbooks, 1951-1988, contains the scrapbooks created by the National Cotton Council office as well as scrapbooks created by the Maids themselves or others for her. Scrapbooks most often contain news clippings, ephemera, and sometimes correspondence.

Series 4, Audio-Visual, 1991-1993. This series contains video and audio related to the Maid of Cotton. It is currently unprocessed.

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Arrangement note

This collection is arranged into four series.

Series 1, Organizational and Pageant Files, 1939-1993, undated

Subseries 1, Maid of Cotton files, 1939-1993

Subseries 2, Little Miss Cotton, 1956-1963, undated

Series 2, Photographs, Slides, and Transparencies, 1939-1994, undated

Subseries 1, Photographic Negatives and Transparencies, 1939-1993, undated

Subseries 2, Slides, 1939-1993, undated

Series 3, Scrapbooks, 1951-1988

Series 4, Audio-Visual, 1991-1993, undated

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Related Materials

Related Archival Materials note

Materials in the Archives Center

National Cotton Council Records, circa 1960s-1980s (AC1177)

Southern Agriculture Oral History Project Records, 1986-1991 (AC0773)

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Controlled Access Headings

Genre(s)

  • Audiotapes
  • Photograph albums--20th century
  • Photographs--20th century
  • Programs--20th century
  • Reports
  • Scrapbooks -- 20th century
  • Slides (photographs)
  • Videocassettes

Geographic Name(s)

  • Memphis (Tenn.)

Subject(s)

  • Beauty contestants
  • Beauty contests--United States
  • Cotton industry
  • Cotton textile industry

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Physical Characteristics and Technical Requirements note

Gloves must be worn when handling unprotected photographs and negatives. Special arrangements required to view negatives due to cold storage. Using negatives requires a three-hour waiting period. Contact the Archives Center at 202-633-3270.

Researchers must use reference copies of audiovisual materials. When no reference copy exists, the Archives Center staff will produce reference copies on an “as needed” basis, as resources allow. Materials that are stapled should be given first to the reference archivist for removal of the staple before copying. Viewing the film portion of the collection without reference copies requires special appointment, please inquire; listening to audio discs requires special arrangement. Do not use original materials when available on reference video or audio tapes.

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Collection Inventory

 Series 1: Organizational and Pageant Files, 1939-1993

 Subseries 1: Maid of Cotton Files, 1939-1993

Box Folder

Alice Hall, 1939-1980

1 1-3

Mary Nell Porter, 1940-1984

1 4-6

Alice Erle Beasley, 1941-1981

1 7-8

Camille McLean Anderson, 1942

1 9-10

Bonnie Beth Byler, 1943-1981

1 11-12

Linwood Lelane Gisclard, 1943-1959

1 13-14

Jennie Erle Cox, 1945-1957

1 15-16

Gwin Barnwell, 1946

1 17-19

Hilma Seay, 1946-1947


  Box Folder
Mixed materials   30 1
  Box Folder
Mixed materials   30 1

Box Folder

Peggy Dow, fourth runner-up, 1947-1951

1 26

Matilda Lou Nail, 1947-1981

1 27-32

Suzanne "Sue" Howell, 1949-1966

2 1-6

Elizabeth A. McGee, 1950-1961

2 7-11

Jeannine Holland, 1951

2 12-19

Patricia Ann Mullarkey, 1951-1960

2 20-28

Alice Julia Corr, 1953-1955

3 1-11

Beverly Louise Pack, 1954-1968

3 12-20

DeLois J. Faulkner, 1955-1978


  Box Folder
Mixed materials   3 21-32
  Box Folder
Mixed materials   4 1-11

Box Folder

Patricia Anne Cowden, 1956-1974

4 12-23

Helen Landon, 1957-1959

4 24-34

Jean Carter, 1958

5 1-11

Malinda Diggs Berry, 1959-1960

5 12-23

Sandra Lee Jennings, 1960-1981

5 24-34

Linda Joy Lackey, 1961-1981

6 1-12

Penne Ann Percy, 1962-1989


  Box Folder
Mixed materials   30 2
  Box Folder
Mixed materials   6 13-22

Box Folder

Shelby Joy Smith, 1962-1963

6 23-32

Katy Sue Meredith, 1964

7 1-2, 4-11

Judy Hill, 1964-1973


  Box Folder
Mixed materials   7 12-20
  Box Folder
Mixed materials   30 3

Box Folder

Carolyn Kay Adair, first alternate, 1964

7 3

Nancy Bernard, 1966


  Box Folder
Mixed materials   7 21-27
  Box Folder
Mixed materials   30 4

Box Folder

Georgia Kay Pearce, 1967

7 28-34

Susan Holder, 1968

8 1-10

Cathy Louise Muirhead, 1969

8 11-17

Rhoda Gayle Thornton, 1969-1977

8 18-34

Patricia Dianne Perry, 1970-1971


  Box Folder
Mixed materials   8 35-41
  Box Folder
Mixed materials   9 1-10

Box Folder

Debbie Wright, 1971-1972

9 11-25

Debra Ann Ploch, 1973

9 26-42

Kathy Raskin, 1973-1974

9 43-58

Kathryn Tenkhoff, 1975

10 1-14

Victoria Laughlin, 1976

10 15-33

Ellen Douglas Clark, 1977

10 34-54

Ruth Ann Harmon, 1978

11 1-16

Suzanne Brandon Snipes, 1979-1980


  Box Folder
Mixed materials   11 17-29
  Box Folder
Mixed materials   30 9

Box Folder

Melissa Mock, 1980

11 30-43

Karie Kay Ross, 1981

11 44-54

Jann Teresa Carl, 1982

12 1-8

Janie Lea Taylor, 1982-1983

12 9-23

Valerie Rhea Bendall, 1983-1984


  Box Folder
Mixed materials   13 1
  Box Folder
Mixed materials   12 24-41
  Box Folder
Mixed materials   30 11

Michelle Pitcher, 1985


  Box Folder Folder
Mixed materials   13 2-10 12-34
  Box Folder
Mixed materials   30 12

Box Folder

Mary "Mimi" McFadden Boyd, first alternate, 1985

13 11

Sherri Moegle, 1986

13 35-50

Amy Gough, 1987


  Box Folder
Mixed materials   13 51-54
  Box Folder
Mixed materials   14 1-3

Box Folder

Glennys Cowles, first alternate, 1988

14 4

Angela Gwynn Herbert, 1988


  Box Folder
Mixed materials   14 5-9
  Box Folder
Mixed materials   30 13

Gay Daughdrill, 1989


  Box Folder
Mixed materials   30 14
  Box Folder Folder
Mixed materials   14 10-11 13-14

Box Folder

Dina Gaines Sturdivant, alternate, 1989

14 12

Ashley Brunson, 1990


  Box Folder Folder
Mixed materials   14 15-24 26-29
  Box Folder
Mixed materials   30 15

Box Folder

Machelle Candle, alternate, 1990

14 25

Meg Williams, 1990-1991


  Box Folder
Mixed materials   14 30
  Box Folder
Mixed materials   15 1-12
  Box Folder
Mixed materials   30 16

Courtney Stewart, 1992


  Box Folder
Mixed materials   15 13-21
  Box Folder
Mixed materials   30 17

Anna Spiller, 1993


  Box Folder
Mixed materials   16 1-7
  Box Folder
Mixed materials   30 18

Box Folder

1994 contest, 1993

16 8

Announcement to suspend program, 1993

16 9

General files, 1957-1989


  Box Folder
Mixed materials   16 10-50
  Box Folder
Mixed materials   17 1-3

Box Folder

Contest promotion, 1972

30 7

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 Subseries 2: Little Miss Cotton, 1956-1963

Box Folder

Little Miss Cotton, 1956-1963

17 4-19
Box

Little Miss Cotton, pageant sashes, undated

88

 Series 2: Photographs, Slides, and Transparencies, 1939-1994

 Subseries 1: Photographs and transparencies, 1939-1994

Box

Official portraits, Maid of Cotton, 1939-1994

20

Photographs, 1959-1965

21

Photographs, 1966-1969

22
Box Folder

 file: Finalists group photographs, 1967-1984

30 5

Maid of Cotton, photographs with United States Presidents, 1969-1981

30 6

Color transparency strips, Ruth Harmon, 1978

30 8

Melissa Mock, official photograph, 1980

30 10

 Subseries 2: Photographic negatives and transparencies, 1939-1993

Box

Photographic negatives, 1970-1974

23

Photographic negatives and transparencies, 1973-1988

24

Photographic negatives, 1975-1984

25

Photographic negatives, 1985-1986

26

Photographic negatives, 1987-1988

27

Photographic negatives, 1988-1990

28

Photographic negatives, 1990-1993

29

Photographic negatives, transparencies (4x5), 1939-1949

31

Photographic negatives, transparencies (4x5), 1950-1953

32

Photographic negatives, transparencies (4x5), 1954-1957

33

Photographic negatives, transparencies (4x5), 1958-1961


  Box
Negatives   34
  Box
Negatives   33

Box

Photographic negatives, transparencies (4x5), 1961-1963

35

Photographic negatives, transparencies (4x5), 1963-1966

36

Photographic negatives, transparencies (4x5), 1967-1975

37

Photographic negatives, transparencies (4x5), 1976, unidentified

38

Photographic negatives, transparencies, 1958-1959

39

Photographic negatives, transparencies, 1960-1964

40

Photographic negatives, transparencies, 1964-1965

41

Photographic negatives, transparencies, 1965-1966

42

Photographic negatives, transparencies, 1967-1969

43

Photographic negatives, transparencies, 1970-1990

44

Photographic negatives, 1959-1976

45

 Subseries 3: Slides, 1939-1993

Box

Slides, 1939-1968

46

Slides, 1969-1977

47

Slides, 1978-1980

48

Slides, 1981-1982

49

Slides, 1983

50

Slides, 1984

51

Slides, 1985

52

Slides, 1986

53

Slides, 1987

54

Slides, 1988

55

Slides, 1989

56

Slides, 1990

57-58

Slides, 1991

59

Slides, domestic tour, 1991

60

Slides, foreign tour, 1991

61

Slides, 1992

62

Slides, 1993

63

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 Series 3: Scrapbooks, 1951-1988

Box

Patricia Ann Mullarkey, 1951-1952

64

Alice Corr, 1952-1953

65

Beverly Pack, 1953-1954

66

DeLois Faulkner, 1954-1955

67

Patricia Anne Cowden, 1955-1956

68

Helen Landon, 1956-1957

69

Jean Carter, 1957-1958


  Box
Books   70
  Box
Books   86
  Box
Realia   87

Box

Malinda Berry, 1958-1959

71

Sandra Lee Jennings, 1959-1960

72

Linda Lackey, 1960-1961

73

Penne Percy, 1961-1962

74

Shelby Smith, 1963-1964

75

Katy Sue Meredith, 1964-1965

76

Patricia Dianne Perry, 1971

77

Debbie Wright, 1974

78

Kathy Raskin, 1974


  Box
Books   79
  Box Folder
Mixed materials   88 1

Box

Kathryn Tenkhoff, 1975

80

Jann Teresa Carl, 1982

81

Janie Lea Taylor, 1983

82

Sherri Moegle, 1986

83

Angela Gwynn Herbert, 1988

84

Where Are They Now? The Maids of Cotton of Yesteryear, 1956-1960

76

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 Series 4: Audio-Visual, 1991-1993, undated

Box

Video, unprocessed, circa 1991-1993

89

Audio reel, unprocessed, undated

89

Video, unprocessed, undated

90

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