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MARLBORO ORAL HISTORY AND DOCUMENTATION PROJECT, ca. 1926-1986
#198

(11 cu. ft.:  22 DB, 12 Shoe boxes; one map case drawer)

by: Stacy Flaherty & Mimi Minnick, November 2000

Historical Note

The history of Marlboro cigarettes offers insight into one of the great advertising and marketing success stories of the 20th century. An English brand, Marlboro cigarettes were marketed from the Victorian era through the first half of this century as a women's cigarette, with tag-lines that aimed to appeal to female smokers, such as "Marlboro - Mild As May." In 1955, two transformations occurred which would affect both profitability and brand recognition: the addition of an integrated filter and the re-invention of the market through the debut of the "Marlboro Man" advertising campaign. The original Marlboro Man campaign featured close-up images of all kinds of men using the product -- the cowboy was one, along with lifeguards, sailors, drill sergeants, construction workers, gamblers and other types suggestive of a masculine spirit and rugged independence. By 1963, the "Marlboro Country" campaign began. This campaign focused on the cowboy and his symbolic canon: boots, hats, horses, and western landscapes. By the mid-1980s, Marlboro was the best-selling brand in the United States and the world, and the Marlboro cowboy was among the most widely recognized of American cultural symbols. Sold in over 180 nations, both the cigarettes and the ad campaign had become a global phenomena.

Scope and Content

The Marlboro Advertising Oral History and Documentation Project is the result of a two-year effort supported in part by a gift from Philip Morris, Inc. Sixty oral history interviews and a variety of television commercials, print advertising, promotional materials, packaging, and industry publications were gathered to document Marlboro cigarette advertising. The bulk of the collection focuses on the period between 1954 and 1986, and examines the "Marlboro man", "Settle Back" and "Marlboro Country" campaigns. The collection is a rich source of information for researchers interested in advertising and marketing history, issues of smoking and health, and the export of both tobacco and American cultural symbols abroad.

The core of the collection is a series of interviews conducted during 1985-1987 by Dr. Scott Ellsworth, an independent scholar and oral historian. The broad range of interviewees included executives of Philip Morris, advertising agency personnel from Leo Burnett, photographers, production staff, sales and marketing personnel, and Marlboro cowboys.

Twenty-seven interviews were conducted overseas, in Argentina, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Hong Kong, Switzerland, and West Germany. Conducted primarily with Marlboro licensee and affiliate staff, the interviews focus on the marketing and advertising history of Marlboro in the six nations. These interviews and others conducted with executives of Philip Morris International in New York City also address the history of Marlboro advertising in Africa, the Middle East, China, Eastern Europe and elsewhere in Europe and Latin America.

The interviews cover events from the 1930s through the 1980s. They focus on the theory and development of Marlboro advertising, its content and creation, and its modifications over the years. The foreign interviews also discuss the structure of the local cigarette marketplace, marketing and advertising techniques, and the use and modification of Marlboro advertising for different cultures.

Finding aids to the oral histories include abstracts of each interview indicating the major topic discussed, a cumulative index to personal names and topics in the interviews, and brief biographical and scope notes.

Series Descriptions:

The material is arranged in seven series as follows.

Series 1: RESEARCH FILES, contains background materials gathered by the Archives Center project team and includes news clippings, chronologies, and other secondary source materials.

Series 2: INTERVIEWEE FILES, contains oral abstracts of each interview, and occasionally, additional information about the interviewee. Arranged alphabetically by interviewee's last name.

Series 3: ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS, includes original masters, preservation and research copies. Researcher copies are arranged alphabetically by interviewee's last name.

Series 4: ADVERTISING, is divided into five sub-series as follows:

Proofsheets: 1981-1986 (English, Spanish)

Posters, 1984-1985 (English, Spanish, German)

Print ads and Billboards, 1927-1986 (in slide format)

Television commercials, 1955-1986

Radio commercials, 1956-57; 1986

Series 5: PROMOTIONAL ITEMS AND PACKAGING includes boxes, softpacks, cartons, cookbooks, playing cards, and other material from the United States, Switzerland, West Germany Hong Kong and the Dominican Republic.

Series 6: COMPANY PUBLICATIONS & RESEARCH MATERIALS, contains Philip Morris publications concerning the tobacco industry, as well as research material on the Marlboro international campaigns.

Series 7: TRAVEL SLIDES, taken by the project team during the filming of two Marlboro commercial "shoots" in Texas and Utah, and at international locations.

Provenance

The collection was donated to the Archives Center of the National Museum of American History by Philip Morris, Inc. in 1986.

Container List

Box Folder
SERIES 1:  RESEARCH FILES, 1950s-80s
1 1 Bibliography, 1986
2 Project Handbook, 1987
3 Marlboro Chronology, 1955-1975
4 articles: Marlboro Personalities, various sources
5 "Cowboy Dreams" story board, 1986
6 television advertisements, video reel listings
7 international ads, historical reel listing
8 international ads, Hong Kong listing
9 radio advertisements
10 Warshaw collection images
11 miscellaneous print ads
12 articles: Philip Morris chronology and corporate profiles (various sources)
13 articles: Philip Morris, Inc., pre-1950s
14 articles: Philip Morris, Inc., 1950s
15 articles: Philip Morris, Inc., 1960s
16 articles: Philip Morris, Inc. 1970s
17 articles: Philip Morris, Inc. 1980s
18 Philip Morris, Inc., foreign cigarette business and advertising
19 Business Week cigarette sales figures, 1949-1971
20 "The Facts Behind Filter-Tip Cigarettes", Readers' Digest, July 1957 and "Wanted and Available - Filter Tips That Really Filter", Readers Digest, August 1957
21 articles: Four Sixes Ranch, Texas
2 1 articles: cigarette advertising
2 articles: cowboy images in advertising
3 articles: tobacco advertising regulations
4 cigarette ban article listing
5 articles: tobacco
6 articles: women and smoking
7 "Smoking or Health: The Choice is Yours", World Health magazine, February-March 1980
8 "Marketing and Distribution of Tobacco" study prepared by the UNCTAD Secretariat of the United Nations, 1978
9 flyer for "Death in the West: One of the Most Powerful Anti-Smoking Films Ever made", 1986
10 Federal Trade Commission Staff Report on the Cigarette Advertising Investigation (public version), May 1981
3 1 articles: Leo Burnett Company, Inc.
2 Reader's Guide information on Marlboro, July 1943 - October 1982
3 miscellaneous secondary sources

SERIES 2: INTERVIEWEE FILES, 1986
4 1 master index
2 Hall Adams, Jr., Chairman and CEO, Leo Burnett, Co., interviewed in New York City.
3 Rafael Arguelles, Marketing Director, Massalin Particulares, interviewed in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
4 Manuel E. Aybar, Market Researcher, E. Leon Jimenes, interviewed in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
5 Kirk Bachman, first assistant cameraman, freelancer, interviewed in Marfa, Texas
6 Lester Bagdasarian, Jr., Art Director, Leo Burnett, Co., interviewed in Chicago, Illinois.
7 John Benson, former Account Executive with Leo Burnett, interviewed in Chicago, Illinois.
8 Marlene Bregman, Director of Marketing Services, Leo Burnett Publicidade, interviewed in Sao Paolo, Brazil.
9 Elizabeth Butson, Vice-President, Philip Morris, USA, interviewed in New York City.
10 William Campbell, Executive Vice President of marketing for Philip Morris, USA interviewed in New York City.
11 Kenneth Carter, Art Director, Leo Burnett Co., interviewed in Alpine, Texas.
12 Juan O. Contin, Promotion Director at E. Leon Jimenes, interviewed in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.
13 Ralph Delby, Art Director, Leo Burnett, interviewed in Chicago, Illinois.
14 Bob Dillard, editor of local newspaper and extra in "Cowboy Dreams", interviewed in Marfa, Texas.
15 Fernando X. Donoso, interpreter for Felipe Gil, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
4 16 Thomas Duff, Accountant, Leo Burnett Co., interviewed in Marfa, Texas.
17 Gabrielle Euchner, Product Manager, Philip Morris, GMBH, interviewed in Munich, West Germany.
18 Ian Ferguson, Marketing Director, Philip Morris, interviewed in Lausanne, Switzerland
19 Knut Fockler, Marketing Director, Philip Morris GMBH, interviewed in Munich, West Germany
20 Felipe Gil, Director of Publicity, E. Leo Jimenes, interviewed in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
21 Carlos Giovanelli, Director of Marketing Research, Massalin Particulares, interviewed in Buenos Aires, Argentina
22 Earl Glass, Art Director, Leo Burnett Co, interviewed in Chicago, Illinois
23 K. Dawn Glover, schoolteacher and extra in "Cowboy Dreams" interviewed in Marfa, Texas
24 Rafael Gomez, Sales Manager, E. Leon Jimenes, interviewed in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
25 Jorge Alberto Gonzalez, Director of Marketing, Massalin Particulares, interviewed in Buenos Aires, Argentina
26 Tom Jarrard, Marlboro wrangler, interviewed in Lander, Wyoming
27 Phelps Johnston, copywriter, Leo Burnett, interviewed in Chicago, Illinois
28 Guy Jones, grip, interviewed in Marfa, Texas
29 Cici Kinney, Production Coordinator, "Cowboy Dreams", interviewed in marfa, Texas
30 Kenneth Krom, Creative Director, Leo Burnett, interviewed in Chicago, Illinois
31 William Kwan, Area Manager, Philip Morris, Asia, interviewed in Hong Kong
4 32 Karen Kwok, Associate Account Advertising Director, Leo Burnett, interviewed in Hong Kong
33 Goddard Kwong, Promotions Manager, Philip Morris Asia, interviewed in Hong Kong
34 John Landry, Senior Vice-President, Philip Morris, interviewed in New York City
35 Luis Manuel Leon, Assistant to the Marketing Director and grandson of the founder of E. Leon Jimenes, interviewed in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
36 Emily Lo, Advertising Manager, Philip Morris Asia, interviewed in Hong Kong
37 Johnny Lo, Media Group head, Leo Burnett, interviewed in Hong Kong
38 William Ma, Hong Kong Sales Manager, Philip Morris Asia, interviewed in Hong Kong
39 Dick Marx, music producer, Dick Marx and Associates, interviewed in Chicago, Illinois
40 Neil McBain, former Art Director, Leo Burnett, interviewed in Chicago, Illinois
41 Bobby McKnight, actor in "Cowboy Dreams", interviewed in Marfa, Texas
42 Ross Milhiser, Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors, Philip Morris, Inc., interviewed in New York City
43 Norman Muse, Chairman and Chief Creative Officer, Leo Burnett, interviewed in Chicago, Illinois
44 David Musial, producer, Leo Burnett, interviewed in Chicago, Illinois
45 Raul Nunez, Director of Marketing, E. Leon Jimenes, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
46 James Oates, Account Executive, Leo Burnett, interviewed in Chicago, Illinois
47 Jean-Pierre Paschoud, Director of Marketing, Philip Morris, interviewed in Lausanne, Switzerland
4 48 Expedy Pou, interpreter for Rafael M. Gomez, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
49 Juan Luis Restrepo, Brand Manager, E. Leon Jimenes, interviewed in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
50 Gilberto Rodriquez, owner, Toltec Cafe (used in "Cowboy Dreams"), interviewed in Alpine, Texas
51 David Smirnoff, freelance executive film producer for Starlight Productions, interviewed in High Frontier Ranch, Jeff Davis County, Texas
52 Bruce Surtees, motion picture photographer for "Cowboy Dreams" interviewed in Marfa, Texas
53 Daniel Tso, Director of Brand management, Philip Morris U.S.A., interviewed in New York City
54 Gunther Ulrich, Manager of Market Information and Alaysis, Philip Morris, GMBH, interviewed in Munich, West Germany
55 Juan Vergara, Chief of Publicity and Promotion, Philip Morris, interviewed in Sao Paolo, Brazil
56 George Weissman, Director Emeritus of Philip Morris, Inc., interviewed in New York City
57 Kelly Whitfield, local resident in "Cowboy Dreams" interviewed in Fort Russell, Marfa, Texas
58 Darrell Winfield, Marlboro cowboy, interviewed in Riverton, Wyoming
59 Thorisman Wolff, Manager of Public Relations, Philip Morris, GMBH, interviewed in Munich, West Germany
60 Robert Zabeo, Director of Marketing for Phlip Morris in Brazil, interviewed in Sao Paolo, Brazil
61 Manfredo Zinn, Director of Marketing, Massalin Particulares, interviewed in Buenos Aires, Argentina

SERIES 3: ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS, 1986

researcher listening copies; arranged alphabetically by interviewees last name; see Series 2 listing (above) for more information on each interviewee

5 Hall Adams- Juan Contin
6 Ralph Delby - Rafael Gomez
7 Jorge Gonzalez - Johnny Lo
8 William Ma - Jean-Pierre Paschoud
9 Juan Luis Restrepo - Manfredo Zinn
10 Hall Adams - Juan Contin (second copy)
11 Ralph Delby - Rafael Gomez (second copy)
12 Jorge Gonzalez - Johnny Lo (second copy)
13 Juan Luis Restrepo - Manfredo Zinn (second copy)

SERIES 4: ADVERTISEMENTS, 1926-86

Subseries A: Proofsheets, 1981-1986

15 1 1981
2 1982
3 1983
4 1984
5-6 1985
7 1986


Subseries B: Posters, 1984-1985

15 8 1984-1985
9 n.d. (German)


Subseries C: Print Ads, Outdoor Ads, & International Ads, 1926-1986 (slide format)

16 1927-1962
17 1962-1973
18 1973-1981
19 1982-1984
20 1984-1986; outdoor and international advertisements


Subseries D: Television Commercials, 1955-1986

21 1 1955-56
2 1956-1957
3 1957-1958
4 1958-1959
5 n.d.
6 1959
22 7 1961-1962
8 1962-1964
9 1964-1965
10 1965
11 1965-1967
12 1967-1969
23 13 n.d.
14 international, 1986


Subseries E: Radio Commercials, 1956-57; 1986

14 Marlboro Radio spots, 1956-1957
Dominican Baseball Broadcast with Marlboro commercials, November, 1986

SERIES 5: PROMOTIONAL ITEMS AND PACKAGING
24 United States (7 items)
25 1 Switzerland, (5 items)
2 West Germany (8 items)
3 Hong Kong (4 items)
4 Dominican Republic (6 items)

SERIES 6: PUBLICATIONS AND RESEARCH MATERIAL, 1953-1987
27 1 Philip Morris magazine, Fall 1985 - Winter 1987
2 Philip Morris, Inc Annual Reports, 1953-1985
28 1 The Force, sales force magazine, 1978-1985
2 Philip Morris Research Center material
3 The Call News, 1960-1967; 1978-1982
4 Call News photographs
5 Happenings, Feb./Mar. 1986
29 1 Tobacco Observer, November 1985 - July 1987
2 Maxwell Report, Cigarette Industry Sales, 1983-1986
3 Tobacco Merchants Association, Special Reports, 1975-1985
4 merchandising materials catalog
5 World Tobacco Directory, 1986
6 Smoking Issues Status Book, 1-2
30 1 World Tobacco magazine, June 1984 - December 1985
2 Tobacco Reporter, May - November 1985
31 1 Tobacco International Turkey/Bulgaria, 1/25/85
2 Tobacco International Greece/Yugoslavia, 3/8/85
3 Tobacco International Great Britain/America, 3/22/85
4 Tobacco International, Africa, 5/31/85
5 Tobacco International, Latin America, 6/28/85
6 Tobacco International, Thailand, 8/23/85
7 Tobacco International, Japan, 9/6/85
8 Tobacco International, China, 9/20/85
9 Tobacco International, mid-winter meeting issue, 2/7/86
10 Tobacco International, Pakistan 1/10/86
11 Tobacco International, Spain, 2/21/86
32 1 Argentina Case History, 1972-1986
2-4 Argentina Print advertising, n.d.
5-8 Argentina Research materials, 1980; 1982-1983; 1985-1986
9-11 Brazil background materials, n.d.
12 Brazil Marlboro case history, n.d.
13 Brazil notes, n.d.
14 Brazil Philip Morris em Noticias, 1/87
15-21 Dominican Republic background materials, n.d.
22; 24-25 Dominican Republic - E. Leon Jimenes background materials, n.d.
23 Dominican Republic Lexicon, n.d.
26-27 El Leoncito, Dominican Republic, 1985
33 1-4 El Leoncito, Dominican Republic, 1985
5-10 El Leoncito, Dominican Republic, 1986
11-14 El Leoncito, Dominican Republic, 1987
15 El Leoncito, Dominican Republic, 1988 -
34 1 China, general information on cigarette industry, n.d.
2 Hong Kong background materials, n.d.
3-4 Hong Kong Marlboro Case History, 1976-1981
5 Hong Kong Lexicon, n.d.
6 Hong Kong Marlboro Advertising, Leo Burnett, n.d.
7-8 Hong Kong, general material on cigarette industry, n.d.
9 West Germany, research materials, n.d.
10 German Cigarette Market (booklet), 1985
11 German Marlboro Story (video script)
12 Hollywood magazine (Adventure tour information, 1986)
13 Switzerland research materials, n.d.
14 miscellaneous international market information

SERIES 7: TRAVEL SLIDES GENERATED BY PROJECT TEAM
26 Marfa, West Texas; Moab, Utah Argentina; Brazil; China; Dominican Republic; Hong Kong; Switzerland; West Germany

Stacy Flaherty (1987)
edited by Mona Morris (1988)

revised by Mimi Minnick (1997 and 2000)

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E-mail: archivescenter@si.edu
Revised: October 15, 2007