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THE MORTON FAMILY COLLECTION 1849-1911
#118

(2.3 cubic feet: 7 DB)

by: Sheila Pinsker & Robert S. Harding, 1986

Biography

William Thomas Green Morton was born on August 9, 1819 in Charlton, a village in Worcester Co., Massachusetts. He was the son of James Morton, a farmer of Charlton, and his wife Rebecca, a daughter of William Needham of Charlton.

Young William had a New England common school education at Northfield and Leicester Academies. In 1836 at the age of seventeen he went to work as a clerk and salesman in various business houses in Boston. Finding such employment of little interest, however, he enrolled in the College of Dental Surgery in Baltimore, Maryland in 1840. In the winter of 1842-1843, William Morton and Horace Wells, who had begun to practice dentistry in Hartford, Connecticut in 1836, practiced together in Boston. This partnership turned out to be unprofitable and was dissolved in the fall of 1843. Wells returned to Hartford; Morton stayed in Boston.

In March 1844 William Morton began studying medicine with Dr. Charles T. Jackson and later continued his studies at the Harvard Medical School. He also married in 1844. He did not complete Harvard's degree requirements but in 1852 was awarded an M.D. degree "honoris causa" by the Washington University of Medicine, later the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Baltimore.

During 1844 while the dentist and aspiring physician was studying with Dr. Jackson, Jackson demonstrated before his chemistry classes that inhalation of sulfuric ether causes loss of consciousness. William Morton who had continued his practice during his medical studies for financial reasons, was especially interested in the manufacture of artificial teeth and was, therefore, concerned with lessening the pain of extraction of roots. He had tried various methods such as intoxicants, opium and mesmerism but none was effective. Morton tried inhalation of sulfuric ether on himself and during the summer of 1846 he anaesthetized goldfish, a hen and his pet spaniel. They all recovered and the dentist was ready to use ether on patients. The painless extraction of an ulcerated tooth on September 30, 1846 was written up in the Boston Daily Journal of October 1, 1846. Following the newspaper accounts, Henry J. Bigelow, a Boston surgeon affiliated with Massachusetts General Hospital and John Collins Warren, the surgical chief at Massachusetts General invited Morton to demonstrate his discovery there. The removal of a tumor by Dr. Warren from the neck of a patient successfully anaesthetized by Dr. Morton on October 16, 1846 was followed the next day by a second successful anesthesia and surgery by Dr. George Hayward. After several weeks of further trials, H. J. Bigelow announced Morton's discovery in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal on November 18, 1846.

On October 27, 1846, shortly after the first demonstration, Morton and Jackson applied for a patent which was issued November 12, 1846. They did not reveal that the anesthetic agent was sulfuric ether although it soon became apparent. On the application for patent it was labeled "Letheon". Patent No. 4848 was issued on November 12, 1846.

In 1847 a memorial to the Congress of the U.S. by the physicians and surgeons of Boston requested compensation to the discoverer of the anesthetic uses of ether, William T. G. Morton. Since this petition resulted in no action, Morton himself petitioned the Congress for financial reward. Two bills appropriating $200,000 for the discovery of practical anesthesia were introduced into three sessions of Congress but none passed. Supporters of Charles T. Jackson, Horace Wells and Crawford W. Long, each of whom had participated to some extent in the discovery of inhalation anesthesia, started a controversy which continued for years. Congressional committee and subcommittee concern dragged on for nearly two decades without fruition. Dr. Morton's last twenty years were spent in controversy and litigation although several of the plans for compensating him resulted in honor if not in funds. He died of apoplexy at forty-nine, on July 15, 1869.

Among early honors awarded to Dr. Morton was the Montyon Prize of 5,000 French francs awarded jointly to him and Dr. Jackson by the French Academy of Sciences. Morton refused the award saying the discovery for which it was granted was his and his alone. A testimonial of $1,000 from the trustees of the Massachusetts General Hospital was accepted. He received the Order of Wasa of Sweden and Norway and the Order of St. Vladimir of Russia for his contribution to science. There were testimonials by the medical profession in several cities. His name is inscribed among those of illustrious sons of Massachusetts in the Dome of the Hall of Representatives in the State House in Boston and among those on the facade of the Boston Public Library.

Crawford Long, Horace Wells and Charles T. Jackson all played a part in the discovery of surgical anesthesia but William T. G. Morton became the best known of the contenders for priority of discovery. The controversy among them continued for years and was never clearly resolved.

Dr. William H. Welch, Johns Hopkins University Medical School, gave a definitive address at the Massachusetts General Hospital on the introduction of surgical anesthesia on the 62nd anniversary of Ether Day (October 16, 1908). According to Dr. Welch, Dr. Crawford Long of Jefferson, Jackson Co. Georgia in March 1842 removed a small tumor from the neck of a patient anaesthetized with ether, and performed eight more minor operations under ether in the next Lcour years. He delayed publication however until several years after the universal acceptance of surgical anesthesia and published details are sketchy. Until Long's work became known, Horace Wells was generally credited with first using inhalation anesthesia--nitrous oxide. The failure of an important experiment resulted in Wells abandoning his experiments and withdrawing from the practice of dentistry. He later took his own life. Dr. Welch considered Wells' work "...a direct and important link in the chain of discovery which led ... to the universal adoption of surgical anesthesia."1 After careful review of the evidence and the opinions of Morton's medical contemporaries, Dr. Welch gave major honors for the discovery to Morton. 2

1. Welch, William H., M..D., A Consideration of the Introduction of Surgical Anesthesia, The Barta Press, Boston, n.d., p. 11

2. Ibid.

Scope and content

The material in the collection was gathered by Morton's son, W. J. Morton, in defense of his father's character and work, and presented to the Smithsonian Institution by him on April 2, 1918. It includes correspondence, reprints of articles from medical and surgical journals, other publications, reports of congressional committees, materials relating to securing a U.S. patent, and testimonials on behalf of Morton's claim. Many of the articles and other publications relate to the controversy concerning priority in discovery of the anesthetic properties of ether in connection with medical and surgical procedures. A number are the work of contemporaries. Much of the material now in the collection is in reasonably good condition, particularly the books and many of the reprints. Many handwritten documents however show evidence of extensive water damage and some are illegible.

A report of a Smithsonian committee on condemnation on November 1, 1927 recommended destruction of' three trunks in which the Morton materials were shipped. These trunks had been stored in a damp cellar before coming to the Museum and many of the documents were so damaged as to be illegible. Such papers were destroyed with the trunks. Another committee on condemnation was appointed in April, 1955 to report on the disposal of duplicate printed materials in the Division of Medicine and Public Health no longer needed for either exhibit or study purposes. On April 20, 1955 this committee recommended transfer of such material from the Morton collection to the Armed Forces Medical Library for distribution to medical libraries throughout the country through their exchange services.

The material has been organized into two series: (1) letters and documents arranged alphabetically by subject and (2) publications arranged alphabetically by author if known or by subject if no author is designated. A bound volume of many of the pamphlets available as single publications is part of the collection. The numbers found at the end immediately following the # are the numbers stamped on the publications when they were received by the Archives Center.

Several of the documents which are listed as part of the collection are on exhibit in "Pain and Its Relief," an exhibition at the National Museum of American History. Several others, listed in the accession file or a descriptive list were not among the materials received by the Archives Center, and have been listed as missing. Where descriptive cards prepared by an intern were sent to the Archives Center, they have been filed with the pertinent document.

Container List

Box Folder
Series 1: LETTERS AND DOCUMENTS, 1849-1866
1 1 Agreements re: Morton patent.

(1) Morton, Witte, Cuyler May 12, 1860

(2) Morton, Benjamin Cozzens and Samuel Cozzens, September 11, 1860 and Nov. 21, 1860

1 2 Bill of Complaint, Circuit Court of U.S.- handwritten, badly damaged, incomplete.
1 3 Douglas, Frederick - Transcript of a speech entitled 'Reconstruction', March 19, 1866. Recorded by a Chicago firm of shorthand writers. Handwritten.
1 4 Historical materials for the biography of W.T.G. Morton compiled by Ben. Perly Poore. Washington G.S. Gideon, 1856. With handwritten additions and changes.
1 5 House of Representatives 506. 38th Congress lst Session, a bill making appropriations for sundry civil expenses, including $200,000 for Dr. Morton, p. 20.
1 6 Letters and documents relating to Jackson/Morton controversy. In poor condition, handwritten. A number of these dated March & April 1852 are from members of the Board of Trustees of the Massachusetts General Hospital to Edward Stanly in response to questions from him about the Jackson/14orton controversy. One dated April 27, 1864 is' to Thaddeus Stevens, chairman of Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives argues that Jackson should share in funds granted to Morton. Several are from Jackson asking the addressee if he had signed a paper in support of Morton's claim to be the discover of ether.
1 7 Jackson's protest of Morton's claim to priority in the discovery of inhalation anaesthesia p. 5 only, remainder missing.
1 8 Letters re: compensation for discovery. Letter to William Whiting, Solicitor of War Department from Committee on Ways and Means re: his opinion on Morton's claim against the government, March 22, 1864. Letter from N. Wilson, chairman Committee on Ways and Means to William Hammond, Surgeon General of Army asking for opinions on amount Morton should be paid. Draft letter to Whiting of War Dept about Morton's claim, March 28, 1864. Several letters, 1856, 1857, reassignment of Tuckerman claim to 50 percent of Morton's receipts from the government to the Eastern Railroad. Claim was reduced to $3,000 and in 1862 to $1,500.
1 9 Jackson's memorial to Congress re: compensation, February 28, 1863; June 133, 1864

1 10 Morton's plea for recognition and compensation by Congress. Badly damaged. n.d.
1 11 Report of Select Committee of House of Representatives on Morton's Memorials to the Congress. June 28, 1852.
1 12 Jackson's request for issuance of patent rights to Morton. Recorded November 10, 1846.
1 13 Subscription to enable Morton to visit Europe. May 13, 1861
1 14 Testimonial regarding value of ether. December 25, 1862, January 2, 1863, February 9, 1865.
1 15 Testimonial re George Barnes. February 7, 1849
1 16 & 17 Water-damaged documents-illegible.
Series 2: PUBLICATIONS
4 3 The Alleged Dangers which Accompany the Inhalation of the Vapor of Sulphuric Ether. Report of a committee of the Boston Society for Medical Improvement. Boston: David Clapp, 1861. #24
4 3 "Anaesthesia" Harper's New Monthly Magazine 31 no. 184 (September 1865). #62
4 3 "An Appeal to the Patrons of Science and the Friends of Humanity." Boston: (no publisher, n.d.) #51
4 3 "An Appeal to the Patrons of Science and the Friends of Humanity." Boston: J.H. Eastburn's Press, 1857. #88
4 3 An Appeal to the Public by Members of the Medical Profession in N.Y.

New York: George Nesbitt and Co., 1858. #98

4 3 An Appeal to the Public by Members of the Medical Profession. New York: G.F. Nesbitt and Co., 1858. #99
2 1 Ayer, Washington, M.D. "The Discovery of Anaesthesia by Ether." Occidental Medical Times (March 1896). Reprint. Sacramento, 1896. #114
2 1 Barber, William. "Dr. Jackson's Discovery of Ether." Periodical article: (n.d.): 46-58. #80
2 1 Bigelow, Henry J., M.D. "Ether and Chloroform: Their Discovery and Physiological Effects." Boston: David Clapp, 1848. Reprint. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal and the Transactions of the American Medical Association 1. #41
2 1 Bigelow, Henry J., "Ether and Chloroform: A Compendium of Their History, Surgical Use, Dangers and Discovery." Boston: David Clapp, 1848. Reprint. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. #40
2 1 Bigelow, Henry J., "Etherization - A Compendium of Its History, Surgical Use, Dangers and Discovery." Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 38, No. 12 (April 19, 1848): 229-247. #110
2 1 Bigelow, Henry J., "Insensibility During Surgical Operations Produced by Inhalation." David Clapp. Boston 1846. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 35, No. 16. (Nov. 18, 1846) #21
2 1 Bigelow, Henry J., "Insensibility During Surgical Operations Produced by Inhalation." David Clapp. Boston. 1846. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal Vol. XXXV No. 19. December 9, 1846 p. 379. #22
5 1 Bigelow, Henry J., Anesthesia: Addresses and Other Papers Boston. Little Brown and Co. 1900
2 2 Borland, Mr., Committee on Military Affairs. "The Ether Controversy, Debate in the Senate." Supplement: Boston Medical and Surgical Journal October 6, 1852. #23
2 2 Borland, Mr., "Anesthesia Properties of Sulphuric Ether, Debate in the US Senate August 28, 1852" Reprint. Appendix to the Congressional Globe. #5
2 2 Biographical sketch of Dr. William T.G. Morton. Reprint. Physicians and Surgeons of America. #19 & 20 (2 copies)
2 2 Bowditch, N.I. "The Ether Controversy. Vindication of the Hospital Report Boston. John Wilson. 1848. #31
2 2 Brinton, John H., M.D. Valedictory Address to the Graduating Class of Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia. April 27, 1892. #49
2 2 Brown, Buckminster, M.D. On the Pathological and Physiological Effects of Ethereal Inhalation Boston. David Clapp, 1847. #42
2 2 Burroughs, Wellcome and Co. Anaesthetics, Ancient and Modern London. (2 copies) #111
2 2 Burwell, George N., M.D. Of the Use of Chloroform in Midwifery. 1853. #59
2 2 Channing, Walter, M.D. # 45
2 2 Chapman, John, M.D. "Chloroform and Other Anaesthetics: Their History and Use during Childbirth." London. Williams and Norgate. 1859. Reprint. The Westminster Review January 1859. #119
2 3 Choate, Jr., Joseph H. Petition to Members of the Legislature of the State of New York for the Relief of Dr. James Morton. December 29, 1913. #76
4 3 Chloroform and Other Anaesthetics. The Westminster Review Vol. 47 no. 1 January 1859 (Book reviews; several pages missing). #58
4 3 Circular: Morton's Letheon 5th edition Voice from Europe. Boston, 1847. #87 (Missing)
4 3 Copies of Letters Patent Granted to W.T.G. Morton M.D. for the Discovery of Etherization. Washington, 1854 #52
2 3 Cozzens, B. and S.D. Before the Commissioner of Patents in the Matter of Extension of Letters Patent of the U.S. Granted to William T.G. Morton, on the 12th day of November 1846, for "An Improvement in Surgical Operations" Statement and Account New York. H.S. Taylor. 1860. #77
2 3 Curtis, George T. Letter to Hon. C. Cushing, Attorney General of the U.S. May 1, 1355. #85
2 3 Dana, Richard H. Jr., "The Ether Discovery" Littell's Living Age March, 1848. (Damaged) #4
2 3 Dana, Jr., R.H. (Editor) Rapport des Administrateurs de I'Hopital General de Massachusetts; suivre de l 'Histoire de la De-couverte de L'ether; et du Memoire Addresse par le Docteur Morton a I'Academie Francaise. Cambridge: Metcalfe and Compangnie. 1848 #50
4 3 Death of Dr. Horace Wells - Reprint of newspaper comments. January, 1848. #78
4 3 Discovery of Etherization. Brief Embracing the Legal Points of Dr. Morton's Case. #104
4 3 Dodge, Hon. Rufus B. (Missing).
4 4 Dr. Morton's Patent for the Use of Sulphuric Ether. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol. 66 No. 2, February 13, 1862. #60
4 4 Dr. Morton's Patent for the Use of Sulphuric Ether. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol. 66 Number 5, March 1, 1862. #61
4 4 Dr. W.T.G. Morton Cambridge Sketches. (proof sheets) #79
4 4 An Examination of the Question of Anaesthesia Arising on the Memorial of Charles Thomas Wells Presented to U.S. Senate, 2nd Session 32nd Congress. Referred to Select Committee, Issac R. Walker, Chairman. #71
4 4 A Few of the Letters from Eminent Scientific Men in Support of an Appropriation for the Use of Anaesthetics. #74
2 3 Dwinelle, William H., M.D. "The Casket and the Ribbon" Baltimore: John Woods 1849 Reprint. American Journal of Dental Science. Undated. #15
2 3 Eliot, Charles W. The Fruits of Medical Research with the Aid of Anaesthesia and Asepticism. Boston: Barton Press, 1909. #115
7 - Ether Pamphlets: This is a bound volume of pamphlets many of which are copies of pamphlets available in the collection as single publications. It includes one complete index of the pamphlets and one partial index both of which are handwritten in ink.
2 4 Fowler, George Ryerson, M.D. "The Evolution of the Surgery of the Twentieth Century" Reprint. New York. The Medical News, November 28, 1896. #26
4 4 Full Exposure of the Conduct of Dr. Charles T. Jackson. #65
2 4 Gay, Martin, M.D. A Statement of the Claims of Charles T. Jackson, M.D. to the Discovery of the Applicability of Sulphuric Ether to the Prevention of Pain in Surgical Operations. Boston. David Clapp, 1847.
2 4 Gould, A.A. et al. Letters to Hon. Edward Stanley, Select Committee, House of Representations. 1852. #82
2 4 Greenbaum, L., M.D., D.D.S. "Anaesthetics from the Dental Standpoint." Items of Interest Vol. xxiii No. 7. July, 1901 #54
2 4 Hayden, William R., M.D. "The Discovery of Ether" The Bostonian Vol III No. 4. January, 1896. #37
2 4 Hayden, William R., M.D. "History of Anaesthesia or Painless Surgery" N.Y. International Journal of Surgery, 1896. Reprint. #27
2 4 Hayden, William R., M.D. "History of Anaesthesia or Painless Surgery" N.Y. International Journal of Surgery Vol. viii No. 5. May, 1895. #63
5 2 Hayward, George. Surgical Reports and Miscellaneous Papers on Medical Subjects. Boston. Phillips, Samson and Co., 1855.
4 4 Historical Memoranda Relative to the Discovery of Etherization and to the Connection with It of the Late Dr. William T.G. Morton. #64
5 3 Hodges, Richard Manning. A Narrative of Events Connected with the Introduction of Sulphuric Ether into Surgical Use Boston. Little, Brown & Co., 1891.
2 5 Hodges, R.M. et al. "Report of a Committee of the Boston Society for Medical Improvement on the Alleged Dangers which Accompany the Inhalation of the Vapor of Sulphuric Ether." Boston Medical and Surgical Journal Vol LXV No. 12 October 24, 1861. #109
2 5 Holmes, Oliver Wendell and others.
2 5 Jackson, Charles T., M.D.
2 5 Jackson, Charles T. M.D. Letter to Hon.William H. Bissell, Chairman of Select Committee on Ether Discovery Containing His Statement and the History of His Discovery. Boston: December 18, 1851. #75
2 5 Jackson, Charles T. M.D. "On Anaesthetic Agents"Southern Medical Journal Vol. 9 No. l. January, 1853. #17
2 5 Jackson, J.B.S., M.D. "Discovery of the Inhalation of Sulphuric Ether as a Preventive of Pain." Reprint. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, June 30, 1847. #39
2 5 Kendall, Amos. Morse's Patent. "Full Exposure of Dr. Charles T. Jackson's Pretentions to the Invention of the American Electro-magnetic Teleqraph." Washington: John T. Towers, 1852. #86
2 5 Levis, R.J., A.M., M.D. "The Traditional Errors of Surgery." Philadelphia: W. J. Doran. 1888. Reprint. Transactions of the Medical Society of Pennsylvania 20 June, 1888. #28
2 7 McVickar, J.G., L.L.D., D.D. "On Anaesthesia and Anaesthetics." Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1899. Reprint. Edinburgh Medical Journal November, 1879. #90
2 5 Magruder, E.M., M.D. "Discovery of Surgical Anaesthesia." Reprint. Williams Printing Co. Virginia Medical Semi-monthly. Feb. 26, March 12, March 26, 1915.
2 6 Massachusetts General Hospital. The Semi-Centennial of Anaesthesia, October 16, 1846-October 16, 1896 Cambridge H.O. Houghton and Co. 1897.
2 5 McCrillis, Herbert O., "The Conquest of Pain" New England Magazine.

April, 1908. #38

4 4 Memorial to the Congress of the Surgeons and Physicians of the Massachusetts General Hospital at Boston in support of the Claims of W.T.G. Morton and Testimony Establishing the Claim of William T. G. Morton. Washington: A Boyd Hamilton, 1853. #68
2 7 Mitchell, S. Weir, M.D. "The Birth and Death of Pain." A Poem, Vreeland Advertising Press. #53
2 7 Morton, Mrs. E.W. "The Discovery of Anaethesia" McClure's Vol. VII No. 4 September, 1896. #13
4 5 Morton's Letheon. Boston: L.H. Bridgam, n.d. #66
4 5 Proceedings of the Governors of the Almshouse of the City of New York, the Society of New York, et al on the Appeal of the Medical Profession to Raise a National Testimonial for the Benefit of the Discoverer of Anaesthesia. New York: William C. Bryant & Co., 1859. #106
2 7 Morton Testimonial Association. Applications to the 37th and 38th Congresses, Urging Compensation for the Use of Anaesthesia in the Army and Navy of the U.S. #121
2 7 Morton Testimonial Association. Proceedinqs in behalf of the Morton Testimonial. Boston. Rand and Avery, 1861. #91 & #92 (2 copies)
2 7 Morton Testimonial Association. Proceedinqs in behalf of the Morton Testimonial. (Cincinnati). Boston: 1866. #84
2 7 Morton Testimonial Association. Proceedinqs in behalf of the Morton Testimonial (Cleveland). Boston: Rand and Avery, 1866 or 1861? #89
2 7 Morton Testimonial Association. Proceedinqs in behalf of the Morton Testimonial (Newburgh). Boston: n.d. #25
2 7 Morton Testimonial Association. A Representation to Congress Urging Compensation for the Use of Anaesthics in the Army and Navy 38th Congress. 1864. #120
2 7 Morton Testimonial Association. Testimonial to William T.G. Morton. Boston, April, 1861. #81
3 1 Morton, William J., M.D. Anaesthetic Inhalation. Rival Claimants to the Discovery. N.Y. Times. September 9, 1879. Reprint. (2 copies) #7 & #122
3 1 Morton, William J., M.D. "The Invention of Anesthetic Inhalation or Discovery of Anaesthesia." The Virginia Medical Monthly. Vol. 6 No. 12. March, 1880. #47
3 1 Morton, William J., M.D. "The Invention of Anaesthesia Inhalation or Discovery of Anaesthesia" Reprint, with additions and alternations. New York:

D. Appleton and Co., 1880. The Virginia Medical Monthly. March, 1880. #83

3 1 Morton, William J., M.D. "Memoranda Relating to the Discovery of Surgical Anaesthesia, and Dr. William T.G. Morton's Relation to This Event." Reprint. Post Graduate. April, 1905. #32
3 1 Morton, William T.G., M.D. Anaesthetic Agents: The Respectful Notice, Protest and Memorial of W.T.G. Morton, M.D Washington: George S. Gideon, 1854. #101
3 1 Morton, William T.G., M.D. Memoire sur la Decouverte du Nouvel Emploi de l' Ether Sulfurique. Paris: Edward Bautruche, 1847. #105
3 1 Morton, William T.G., M.D. Physiological Effects of Sulphuric Ether and Its Superiority to Chloroform. Boston: David Clapp, 1850. #6
3 1 Morton, William T.G., M.D. Remarks on the Proper Mode of Administering Sulphuric Ether. Boston. Dutton and Wentworth, 1847. #93
3 1 Morton, William T.G., M.D. "The Use of Ether as an Anaesthetic at the Battle of the Wilderness in the Civil War." Chicago: Reprint. Journal of the American Medical Association. April 23, 1904. #29 (missing)
3 2 Ottolengui, R., M.D.S. "Anaesthesia Discovered by a Dentist. True Story of the Discovery of Anaesthesia." Items of Interest , A Monthly Magazine of Dental Art, Science and Literature. Vol. 19 No. 9 New York: September, 1897. #34
3 2 Paget, Sir James, Bart. "Escape from Pain: the History of a Discovery." The Nineteenth Century. 34 London. December, 1879. #1
3 2 Park, Roswell, A.M., M.D. The History and Introduction of Anaesthesia in Surgery." Atlanta Medical and Surgical Journal Vol. XIII No.1O. December, 1896. #2
3 2 Parker, Charles. Report to the Executive Committee of Physicians and Surgeons. Interested in Raising a National Testimonial for the Discoverer of the Anaesthetic Uses of Sulphuric Ether. New York: Km. C. Bryant & Co., 1859. #102
3 2 Poore, Perley, Ben. Historical Materials for the Biography of W.T.G. Morton, M.D. Washington: G.S. Gideon 1856. #56
4 5 "Remarks made by Doctors Charles T. Jackson and Warner on the Discovery of Anaesthesia." Journal of the Gynecological Society of Boston. Vol. 5, No. 1. (July 1871): 18-20. #11
6 1 Report of Select Committee of House of Representatives on Morton's Memorial.
6 2 Testimony by Morton Submitted to Select Committee of the Senate.
6 3 Id. copy 2
6 3 Reprints of Newspaper and Periodical Comments - Memoranda Relating to the Discovery of Anaesthesia, Origin of the Term "Anaesthetic." #126
5 4 Rice, Nathan P., Trials of a Public Benefactor. New York: Pudney and Russell, 1859.
3 3 Scoutetten, H. "Histoire du Chloroforme et du l'Anaesthesie en General." Reprint. Traxaux de la Societe des Sciences Medicales de la Moselle 1852-53. Metz. 1855. #43
3 3 Sedillot, C. "De l'Etherisation et des Operations sans Douleur.0 Strasbourg: G. Silverman, 1847. Reprint. La Gazette Medicale de Strasbourg 20 Fevrier, 1847. #117
3 3 Simpson, J.Y., M.D., F.R.S.E. "On Chloroform, an Account of a New Anaesthetic Agent as a Substitute for sulphuric Ether in Surgery and Midwifery." New York: 1848. #44 (Missing)
3 3 Simpson, J.Y., M.D., F.R.S.E. "Remarks on the Superinduction of Anaesthesia in Natural and Morbid Parturition." Boston. William B. Little & Co. 1848. Reprint. Medical and Chirurqical Society of Edinburgh 1. December, 1847. #30
3 3 Slade, Daniel Denison, M.D. "Historic Moments: The first Capital Operation Under the Influence of Ether" Scribner's Magazine. Vol xii No. 4. October, 1892. #36
3 3 Smilie, E. R., M.D. An Address on the History of the Original Application of Anaesthetic Aqents, May 17, 1848 Boston. Stacy, Richards and Co., 1848. #116
3 4 Smith, Truman. An Inquiry of the Origin of Modern Anaesthesia. Hartford. Brown and Gross, 1867. (2 copies)
3 4 Smith, Truman. Who is Entitled to the Credit of Makinq the Great Discovery? N.Y.: Robert Larter, 1864. #16
3 5 Sneli, E.L. "Dr. Morton's Discovery of Anaesthesia." The Century Magazine Vol. 48 No. 4. August, 1894. #10
3 5 State Street Trust Co. Forty of Boston's Immortals (Pictures and short biographies, including Dr. W.T.G. Morton) Boston: Walton Advertising and Printing Co., 1910. #107
3 5 Stokes, William Royal, -M.D. "Four Great Anglo-American Medical Discoveries." Baltimore. Reprint. The Journal of the Alumni Association of the College of Physicians and Surgeons. January, 1905. #9
3 5 Storer, Horatio R., M.D. "On Chloroform Inhalation During Labor" Boston. David Clapp 1863. Reprint. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. August 20, 1863. #46
3 5 Straith, DR. S. "Nitrous Oxide Gas, the Ideal Anaethetic." Read before the Saginaw Valley Dental Association, April 6, 1901. Society Papers pp. 519-522. #55
3 5 Sunderland, La Roy. "Confessions of a Magnetizer." Boston: Redding and Co., 1845. #124
3 5 Taylor, J.M., M.D. "On the Priority of the Discovery and Use of Anaesthesia.' Jackson, Mississippi: 1879. Reprint. Transactions of the Mississippi State Medical Association, 1879. #113
4 5 Testimonial of Members of the Medical Profession of Philadelphia, New York and Boston in behalf of William. T. G. Morton, M.D. Philadelphia: Collins, 1860. #103
3 5 Turnbull, Laurence, M.D. "Artificial Anaesthesia" Journal of the American Medical Association (November 7, 1885): 529. #57
3 6 U.S. House of Representatives, 30th Congress 2nd Session. Report 114. February 23, 1849. Dr. T.O. Edwards, Chairman, Select Committee. #95
3 6 U.S. House of Representatives 30th Congress, 2nd Session. Report 114, February 23, 1849, Select Committee, Dr. T.O. Edwards, Chairman, French Edition. #96
3 6 U.S. House of Representatives, 32nd Congress, lst Session. 1852. Report of Select Committee. Dr. William H. Bissell, Chairman. #97 (missing)
3 6 U.S. House of Representatives, 32d Congress, Ist. Session. Minority Report of Select Committee on the Ether Discovery. Vindicating the Rights of Charles T. Jackson. Washington, 1832. pp. 1-57. #112
3 6 U.S. House of Representatives 32d Congress. Extracts from Report of Select Committee on Ether Discovery. Brief of points and proofs in regard to the proposed appropriation to enable the President to procure the surrender of the patent issued to Dr. Wm. T.G. Morton for the discovery of the anaesthetic properties of sulphuric ether. pp. 1-23. Discovery of Etherization. Brief embracing the legal points of Dr. Morton's case. pp. 1-7. #108
3 7 U.S. Senate, 32d Congress, 2d Session, February 19, 1853, Report of Committee, no. 421. 1. Report of Select Committee on the subject of Anaesthesia. Isaac P. Walker, Chairman. 2. Memorial presented to Congress by Surgeons and Physicians of Massachusetts General Hospital in support of William T.G. Morton. #69
4 3 U.S. Senate, 32nd Congress 2nd Session, Report the Select Committee on the Subject of Anaesthesia with Remarks of the Hon. J.P. Walker, USS Chairman, n.d.
4 3 U.S. Senate, 37th Congress, 3d Session, February 14, 1863. Report of Committee, no. 89. Report of the Committee on Military Affairs, Henry Wilson, Chairman. (with Appendix.) (Contains Morton's pencilled sentiments). #73
4 3 U.S. Senate, 37th Congress, 3d Session, February 14, 1863. Report of Committee no. 89. Report of the Committee on Military Affairs, Henry Wilson, Chairman. (Without appendix). #72
4 3 U.S. Senate 37th Congress 3rd Session, Report of Committee on Military affairs, 3rd Session 37th Congress, No. 89 Anaesthetics; Brief of Points and Proofs in Support of Petitions, Memorials, Resolutions and Letters. Reprint.Washington. H. Polbenborn 1864. #67
3 8 Wales, J. Discovery by the Late Dr. Horace Wells of the Applicabilitv of Nitrons Oxyd Gas, Sulphuric Ether and Other Vapors in Surgical Operations. Wartford- Elihu Geer, 1852. 2nd edition. #12
3 8 Walker, Issac P. Report of the Select Committee of the U.S. Senate on the Subject of Anaesthesia with Remarks by the Hon. J.P. Walker, Chairman (privately printed)? #70
3 8 Walker, Issac P. Chairman, Select Committee of the Senate. Answer to an Examination of the Question of Anasethesia Washington. Lemuel Towers. 1853. #8
3 8 Warren, Edward, Some Account of the Letheon or Who is the discoverer? Boston. Dutton and Wentwork, 1847. 3rd edition. #3
3 8 Warren, John C., M.D. Effects of Chloroform and of Strong Chloric-Ether as Narcotic Agents. Boston: William D.Tickner & Co., 1849. #118
4 1 Warren, J. Collins, M.D., L.L.D.,F.R.C.S. The Influence of Anaesthesia in the Surgery of the Nineteenth Century. Boston: (privately printed) 1906.
4 1 Warren, J. Collins, M.D., L.L.D.,F.R.C.S. "The Influence of Anaesthesia on Surgery of the 19th Century." Reprint. Transactions of the American Surgical Association. 1897. #48
4 1 Warren, J. Collins, M.D., L.L.D.,F.R.C.S. Etherization with Surgical Remarks Boston: William D. Tickner, 1848. 2 copies.
4 1 Warren, John Collins, I.D. #22
4 2 Welch, William H., M.D., L.L.D. A Consideration of the Introduction of Surgical Anaesthesia. Boston: the Barta Press. n.d. 2 copies. #33
4 2 Who conquered Pain (Dr. Wells the Discoverer of Anaesthesia). New York: 1860. #14
4 2 Williams, Henry Smith, M.D. "The Century's Progress in Scientific Medicine." Harpers Magazine no. 589 (June, 1899.) #35
4 2 The Worcester and Southbridge Street Railway Worcester, Mass. 1903 (Includes pictures of and references to Dr. Wm. T.G. Morton). #125
4 2 Wyman, Jeffries, Biographical Memoirs of Augustus Addison Gould Washington, DC.: Judd and Detweiler, 1903. #123
7 1 Ether Pamphlets

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