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PHILADELPHIA & READING COAL & IRON COMPANY RECORDS, 1866 - 1927
#282

(17 cubic feet: 27 DB, 1 (.5) DB, 23 F/O)

by: Craig Orr, January 1992

History

The Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Co. was organized in order to ensure its parent company, the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, a dominant position in the transportation of anthracite coal from the Schuylkill fields of eastern Pennsylvania. For thirty years after its incorporation in 1833, the Philadelphia & Reading had been the main carrier of coal from this region, shipping anthracite coal from independently owned mines to Philadelphia. By the mid-1860s, however, the company faced increasing competition from other railroads as well as interruptions in supply due to miners' strikes. In response, Franklin B. Gowen, President of the Philadelphia & Reading, decided to gain control of enough coal acreage to ensure the company's survival. However, since it was illegal for railroads to directly own coal fields or operate mines in Pennsylvania, the company had to organize a separate company for the purpose. Accordingly, the Laurel Run Improvement Company was incorporated in May 1871. By taking advantage of a loophole in the Laurel Run company's charter, the Philadelphia & Reading purchased it in November 1871, and thus circumvented the legal restrictions on railroad ownership of coal lands. The newly-acquired company was renamed the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Company in December 1871.

The company quickly acquired coal lands: by 1872, 80,000 acres had been purchased; by 1874, almost 100,000 acres - approximately one-third of the entire Schuylkill coal field. Originally, the company did not intend to mine coal itself; rather, it would rent the collieries it had acquired to independent operators, with the stipulation that the end product must be shipped over the Philadelphia & Reading railroad's lines. Unfortunately, this arrangement did not prove to be either practical or profitable and the company had to take direct control of its mining operations. Despite this step, however, the Coal & Iron Company continued to be unprofitable. In 1913 the United States government brought suit against the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, claiming that its ownership of both the Coal & Iron Company and the Railroad were a monopoly of trade. The case went to the U.S. Supreme Court, which ruled against the railroad in 1920. Under the terms of an agreement worked out by the Court, in December 1923, the Philadelphia & Reading transferred its interests in the Coal & Iron Company to a new company formed for the purpose -- the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Corporation.

Scope and Content

This collection consists of approximately 17 cubic feet of records of the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Company, dating from the period 1866-1927. The bulk of the collection comprises 124 letterpress copybooks from the company's Engineering Department. These contain letters and reports sent by engineers located at the major centers of the company's operations in the Schuylkill coal field -- Ashland, Mahanoy City, Pottsville, and Shamokin. These include the Chief Engineer, the Assistant Engineer, division engineers, resident engineers, associate engineers, mining engineers and their assistants, and transit men. Among these were George S. Clemens, Joseph B. Garner, John R. Hoffman, James F. Jones, Henry M. Luther, Roland C. Luther, Henry Pleasants, John H. Pollard, John H. Strauch, and S. B. Whiting.

Their letterpress copybooks reflect the evolving organization of the Engineering Department, as job titles were changed and individuals were promoted or transferred from one post to another. The copybooks either accompanied the man when he took up a new post or remained in the office, where they were used by his successors. The copybooks in this collection have been arranged into series by person and position. Several additional volumes have been placed in a series of miscellaneous records at the end of the collection.

The correspondence in these volumes deals with all aspects of mining construction and operations, engineering personnel matters, and coordination with the Railroad for the shipment of coal, as well as periodic reports of operations and wagon accounts detailing how much coal had been shipped. Also included is correspondence relating to the formation and operation of the Schuylkill Coal Exchange Committee, which was set up to ease competition among the railroads in the Schuylkill region.

The collection also includes eight letterpress copybooks kept by S. B. Whiting while he was General Manager and General Superintendent of the company (1882-ca. 1888). Whiting also kept letter books in which he pasted letters received from his superiors: Series 1 of the collection consists of two volumes of letters received (1879-1883) from Franklin B. Gowen, President, and one volume of letters received (1881-1884) from George DeB. Keim, General Solicitor and Vice President. In addition, there are eight letterpress copybooks kept by Roland C. Luther during his tenure as General Superintendent (ca. 1888-1902) and one volume from his tenure as the company's Second Vice President (1903-1905). Also included is a volume of printed circular letters from both the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad and from the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Company (1874-1887), which is located in Series 16.

Of additional interest is the inclusion of letters relating to the operation of the Anthracite Water Company among the letterpress copybooks of George S. Clemens, who served as that company's manager in the 1910s. In addition, several of the circular letters pertain directly to the 1888 anthracite coal strike.

Provenance

These records were obtained by the National Museum of American History sometime prior to 1978. They were transferred from the Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources to the Archives Center in July 1989. An additional thirty-five volumes were transferred to the Archives Center in July 1996.

Related Collections

Within the National Museum of American History, the Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources has a collection of photographs from the Philadelphia & Reading Coal and Iron Company, 1866-1927. The bulk of the surviving records of the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Company and its parent company, the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad Company, are located in the Archives and Manuscripts Department of the Hagley Museum & Library in Wilmington, Delaware.

Container List

Box      Folder

Series 1: LETTERS RECEIVED, S. B. WHITING, 1881-1883
1 1 George DeB. Keim, General Solicitor and Vice President, to S. B. Whiting, Chief Engineer No. 1 4/4/81 - 11/13/84
2 Franklin B. Gowen, President, S. B. Whiting, Chief Engineer No. 2 2/3/79 - 5/22/80
2 1 Franklin B. Gowen, President, to S. B. Whiting, Chief Engineer and General Manager No. 3 5/24/80 - 12/8/83
Series 2: GEORGE S. CLEMENS, SHAMOKIN, ASHLAND, AND 
POTTSVILLE, PA., 1875-1921
2 T. Johnston, Resident Engineer (Shamokin); Charles Laurotte, Resident Engineer (Shamokin); George S. Clemens, Resident Engineer (Shamokin) 1/1/75 - 3/29/80
3 George S. Clemens, Assistant Mining Engineer (Shamokin and Ashland)

No. 1 11/13/82 - 4/18/84

3 1 George S. Clemens, Assistant Mining Engineer (Ashland), Division Engineer (Ashland) No. 2 4/19/84 - 7/16/85
2 George S. Clemens Division Engineer (Ashland) No. 3 7/17/85 - 7/31/86
3 George S. Clemens Division Engineer (Ashland) No. 4 7/31/86 - 3/29/88
4 1 " No. 5 3/29/88 - 11/14/89
OS-1 George S. Clemens Division Engineer (Pottsville) 11/15/89 - 4/21/92
4 2 George S. Clemens Division Engineer (Ashland) No. 7 4/25/92 - 9/11/93
3 " No. 8 9/12/93 - 4/30/95
5 1 George S. Clemens Division Engineer (Pottsville) No. 9 5/4/95 - 12/28/98
2 " No. 10 1/1/99 - 4/9/02
3 George S. Clemens Division Engineer (Pottsville), Mining Engineer (Pottsville) 4/12/02 - 7/19/05
6 1 George S. Clemens Mining Engineer (Pottsville) 7/22/05 - 2/11/09
2 George S. Clemens Mining Engineer (Pottsville), Manager of Anthracite Water Company 2/12/09 - 11/11/13
3 George S. Clemens Mining Engineer (Pottsville), Manager of Anthracite Water Company Consulting Engineer 11/15/13 - 1/11/21
OS-1 George S. Clemens -- Reports; Division Engineer (Pottsville), Mining Engineer (Pottsville) 4/16/93 - 4/16/13
Series 3: ASHLAND, PA., 1866-1881
7 1 N. R. Blecky; N. W. Wallen; A. C. Roth Vol. 1 10/6/66 - 8/19/69
2 Lewis (Lee) Riley Assistant Engineer (Ashland) Vol. 2 3/ /70 - 10/23/72
3 James F. Jones Assistant Engineer (Ashland), Resident Engineer (Ashland) Vol. 3 1/6/73 - 6/15/74
4 James F. Jones Resident Engineer (Ashland) Vol. 4 6/13/74 - 12/5/75
8 1 James Ryan, Jr. District Inspector (Ashland); James F. Jones Resident Engineer (Ashland) Vol. 5 8/13/74 - 1/1/77
2 " Vol. 6 12/13/76 - 2/9/78
3 James F. Jones Resident Engineer (Ashland) Vol. 9 2/13/78 - 7/31/79
4 " Vol. 11 8/1/79 - 9/2/80
9 1 James F. Jones Resident Engineer (Ashland), Resident Mining Engineer (Ashland); John H. Pollard Transitman (Ashland), Resident Engineer (Ashland);

F. P. Weiser Transitman (Ashland); Roland C. Luther Transitman (Ashland). Vol. 12 9/3/80 - 10/3/81

Series 4: JOHN H. POLLARD, ASHLAND, PA., 1881-1905
2 John H. Pollard Resident Engineer (Ashland) 10/8/81 - 7/30/83
3 John H. Pollard Resident Engineer (Ashland), Assistant Engineer (Ashland) 7/30/83 - 2/1/86
10 1 John H. Pollard Asstant Engineer (Ashland) 11/30/85 - 12/15/88
2 " 6/12/88 - 6/18/90
3 " 6/18/90 - 5/27/92
OS-2 " 5/31/92 - 7/1/93
" 7/14/93 - 9/5/94
OS-3 " Vol. E 9/4/94 - 9/23/95
" 9/23/95 - 1/4/97
OS-4 " 1/2/97 - 6/24/98
" 6/25/98 - 11/24/99
OS-5 " 11/25/99 - 2/28/01
OS-6 " 2/21/01 - 3/18/02
" 3/18/02 - 5/6/03
" 5/6/03 - 8/1/04
OS-7 John H. Pollard Assistant Engineer (Ashland), Division Engineer (Ashland) Vol. H 7/30/04 - 10/2/05

Series 5: JOHN H. POLLARD, T. R. SPINNEY, AND JOSEPH GARNER, ASHLAND, PA., 1888-1911

OS-7 John H. Pollard Assistant Engineer (Ashland) 12/15/88 - 6/30/92
OS-8 " No. 5 7/5/92 - 1/20/96
" No. 6 1/23/96 - 4/22/99
OS-9 " No. 7 4/24/99 - 11/22/02
John H. Pollard Assistant Engineer (Ashland), Division Engineer (Ashland); T. R. Spinney Transitman (Ashland) 11/28/02 - 12/13/06
OS-10 T. R. Spinney Transitman (Ashland); Joseph B. Garner Division Engineer (Ashland) 12/14/06 - 1/14/11

Series 6: JOHN H. POLLARD AND T. B. VAN BUREN, ASHLAND AND MAHANOY CITY, 1902-1913

OS-15 John H. Pollard Assistant Engineer (Ashland); T. B. van Buren Transitman (Ashland) 4/30/02 - 6/30/07
OS-16 T. B. van Buren Transitman (Ashland), Division Engineer (Mahanoy City) 10/2/05 - 7/28/09
T. B. van Buren Division Engineer (Mahanoy City) 7/28/09 - 1/25/13
Series 7: DIVISION ENGINEER, ASHLAND, PA., 1902-1927
OS-17 F. P. Weiser Assistant Engineer (Ashland) 3/31/02 - 6/20/03
" 1/31/08 - 3/7/11
OS-10 T. R. Spinney Transitman (Ashland); Joseph B. Garner Division Engineer (Ashland) 9/30/05 - 2/19/08
OS-11 Joseph B. Garner Division Engineer (Ashland) 2/24/08 - 2/1/12
Joseph B. Garner Division Engineer (Ashland); Frank H. Bender Division Engineer (Ashland) 1/16/14 - 2/19/17
OS-12 Frank H. Bender Division Engineer (Ashland) 7/10/16 - 4/9/27
Series 8: HENRY M. LUTHER AND JOHN H. POLLARD, ASHLAND, PA., 1881-1905
11 1 Henry M. Luther Transitman (Ashland), Resident Engineer (Ashland)

Vol. 1 1/24/81 - 6/2/84

2 Henry M. Luther Resident Engineer (Ashland), Assistant Engineer (Ashland) Vol. 2 6/28/84 - 12/14/87
3 Henry M. Luther Assistant Engineer (Ashland) Vol. 3 1/17/87 - 5/8/89
OS-12 " Vol. 4 5/14/89 - 9/26/90
OS-13 " 9/26/90 - 1/20/92
Henry M. Luther Assistant Engineer (Ashland); John H. Pollard Assistant Engineer (Ashland) 1/31/92 - 10/7/96
OS-14 John H. Pollard Assistant Engineer (Ashland) 10/7/96 - 11/6/01
John H. Pollard Assistant Engineer (Ashland), Division Engineer (Ashland) 11/11/01 - 11/23/05

Series 9: JOSEPH S. HARRIS, POTTSVILLE, 1871-1877

12 1 Joseph S. Harris Associate Engineer (Pottsville) Vol. 1 5/8/71 - 8/8/72
2 " vol. 2 8/23/72 - 2/12/75
3 " vol. 3 2/12/75 - 12/4/75
4 " vol. 4 12/6/75 - 8/3/76
13 1 " vol. 5 8/2/76 - 2/2/77
Series 10: J. PRICE WETHERILL, POTTSVILLE, PA., 1879-1881
2 J. Price Wetherill Mining Engineer (Pottsville) 2/17/79 - 11/24/79
3 " 11/24/79 - 12/8/80
14 1 " 12/10/80 - 5/14/81
2 J. Price Wetherill Mining Engineer (Pottsville),

Reports and Inventories 5/10/78 - 4/8/81

Series 11: JAMES F. JONES AND ROLAND C. LUTHER,
POTTSVILLE, PA., 1881-1891
14 3 James F. Jones Assistant Mining Engineer (Pottsville), Mining Engineer (Pottsville) 1/27/81 - 1/31/82
15 1 James F. Jones Mining Engineer (Pottsville); Roland C. Luther Mining Engineer (Pottsville) 1/31/82 - 3/23/83
2 Roland C. Luther Mining Engineer (Pottsville) 3/24/83 - 9/30/84
3 " 10/1/84 - 3/8/87
16 1 " 3/8/87 - 8/8/91
Series 12: JOHN R. HOFFMAN AND ROLAND C. LUTHER, POTTSVILLE, 1883 - 1909
2 John R. Hoffman Assistant Mining Engineer; Division Engineer (Pottsville) 5/1/83 - 3/26/86
3 John R. Hoffman Division Engineer (Pottsville); Roland C. Luther General Superintendent (Pottsville) 3/29/86 - 8/12/01
OS-18 John R. Hoffman Assistant Mining Engineer (Pottsville), Reports 6/83 - 6/98
OS-19 Division Engineer; Mining Engineer (Pottsville) 8/12/98 - 7/27/05
Mining Engineer (Pottsville) 1/6/09 - 2/25/09
Series 13: HENRY PLEASANTS AND S. B. WHITING, POTTSVILLE, PA., 1874-1880
OS-15 Henry Pleasants Chief Engineer (Pottsville) 3/12/74 - 3/24/75
17 1 " 3/23/74 - 6/13/75
2 Henry Pleasants Chief Engineer (Pottsville); S. B. Whiting Mechanical Engineer (Pottsville) 11/24/77 - 2/4/80
Series 14: S. B. WHITING AND ROLAND C. LUTHER, POTTSVILLE AND READING, 1877-1905
3 S. B. Whiting Mechanical Engineer (Pottsville) 5/4/77 - 1/13/79
18 1 S. B. Whiting Mechanical Engineer; Chief Engineer (Pottsville)
Vol. 6 2/5/80 - 4/7/81
2 S. B. Whiting Chief Engineer (Pottsville) Vol. 7 4/8/81 - 5/19/82
3 S. B. Whiting Chief Engineer; General Manager (Pottsville)
Vol. 8 5/19/82 - 5/23/83
19 1 " Vol. 1 3/5/83 - 1/6/87
2 " Vol. 9 5/23/83 - 4/19/84
3 " Vol. 10 4/19/84 - 5/20/85
20 1 " 5/21/85 - 6/1/86
2 " 6/1/86 - 4/27/87
3 " 4/28/87 - 12/10/87
21 1 S. B. Whiting General Manager; General Superintendent (Pottsville);

Roland C. Luther General Superintendent (Pottsville) 12/10/87 - 7/19/88

2 Roland C. General Superintendent (Pottsville) vol. 15 7/19/88 - 4/10/89
3 " Vol. 16 4/10/89 - 1/18/90
OS-20 Roland C. Luther General Superintendent (Reading) Vol. 17 1/18/90 - 3/7/91
22 1 " Vol. 18 3/7/91 - 1/5/92
2 " Vol. 20 11/4/92 - 10/24/93
3 Roland C. Luther Second Vice President (Philadelphia) 11/2/03 - 1/19/05
Series 15: GEORGE A. BROOKE AND JOHN H. STRAUCH,
POTTSVILLE, 1879 - 1909
23 1 John H. Strauch Transitman (Pottsville), Resident Engineer (Pottsville) 5/22/79 - 9/4/85
2 George A. Brooke Transitman (Pottsville), Resident Engineer (Pottsville), Assistant Engineer (Pottsville);

John H. Strauch Assistant Engineer (Pottsville) 5/25/80 - 1/3/90

3 John H. Strauch Assistant Engineer (Pottsville) 12/4/90 - 8/4/94
24 1 " vol. 2 1/6/93 - 9/14/96
2 " vol. 3 3/30/96 - 6/13/99
3 " vol. 4 6/19/99 - 12/27/01
25 1 " vol. 5 1/1/02 - 12/7/94
OS-21 " Reports 1/1/02 - 6/04
25 2 John H. Strauch Division Engineer (Pottsville) Vol. 6 12/6/04 - 12/7/06
OS-22 " vol. 7 12/1/06 - 9/27/09
Series 16: MISCELLANEOUS RECORDS, 1873-1987
25 3 Pottsville, PA: William Kendrick, Mining Superintendent 2/4/73 - 4/16/73
26 1 E. J. Weimer -- Wagon Accounts 6/3/08 - 1/12/14
2 E. J. Weimer, Division Superintendent; Jay O. Roads, Division Engineer - Wagon Accounts 1/1/14 - 7/15/18
OS-22 E. J. Weimer, Division Engineer 9/27/09 - 6/12/13
26 3 C. Meuhlhof, Master Carpenter 1/27/90 - 5/18/07
" 3/8/95 - 2/99
OS-23 Shamokin, PA: John F. Bevan, Division Engineer - Wagon Accounts 11/30/10 - 10/31/12
J. E. Klase, Division Engineer R.F. May, Division Engineer - Wagon Accounts 11/1/21 - 5/31/25
27 2 Tremont, PA: J. Price Wetherill, Resident Engineer; John H. Pott, Transitman; Resident Engineer; George Patterson, Resident Engineer 10/27/73 - 11/1/75
OS-18 William J. Richards Vice President and General Manager 7/16/13 - 3/7/14
27 3 Engineering Survey Data on Collieries, 1877-1878
28 1 Circular Letters:
Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Co.;
Philadelphia & Reading Railroad,
 12/30/74 - 11/30/87

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Revised: June 4, 2002