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(2.5 cubic feet: 6 DB; 1 oversize folder)

by: Don Darroch & Robert S. Harding, May 1990; revised Alison L. Oswald, 2001

Container List

Box Folder
3 7 Official Register of Harvard University (Volume XLIII, 25 September 1946, No. 25) Department of Engineering Sciences and Applied Physics, containing an announcement for 1946-1947; published by the University * Cambridge, Massachusetts. Includes: photo of Mark I (p. 52); half-page on Computation Laboratory (p. 53); Research Course 20t. (Professor Aiken) Numerical Analysis and Design of Calculating Instruments (p. 48).
  8 Harvard University Press. Fall Books, 1946 (correct as of 30 September 1946) Mathematics section, page 20: A Manual of Operation for the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator by the Staff of the Computation Laboratory; short description of contents, pages, diagrams, etc. Tables of the Modified Hankel Functions of Order One-Third and of Their Derivatives, by the Staff of the Computation Laboratory, mentions importance of tables, pages, etc.
  9 Harvard University: The President's Report -1946: Promotion to Professor (p. 25); Howard Hathaway Aiken -Professor of Applied Mathematics. Appointments to Associate Professorship (p. 27); Donald Howard Menzel -Associate Director for Solar Research in the Harvard College Observatory.
  10 Journal of Applied Physics (Volume 17, Number 10 -October 1946) Section: Here and There (page 856); Harvard Computation Laboratory Comp. Lab, general use of Mark I. Drawings: First Floor Plan, Comp Lab (p. 856). Drawing of outside front view (cover).
Science Vol. 104, No. 2712 Friday, 20 December 1946 (pp. 581-608): NRC [National Research Council] News (p. 595) Division of Physical Sciences announces formation of new Committee on High-Speed Calculating Machines. Chairman: John von Neumann, Members: Howard H. Aiken, Walter Bartky, Samuel H. Caldwell, George R. Stibitz, Warren Weaver, to study principles and possibilities of machines to find ways of increasing speed of computation to distribute information to interested parties.



Mathematical Tables and other Aids to Computation. Published by the National Research Council; A Quarterly Journal edited on behalf of the Committee on Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation by Raymond Clare Archibald (and) Derrick Henry Lehmer. Copies as of July 19, 1972:

II * Number 16 * October 1946

II * Number 18 * April 1947

II * Number 20 * October 1947

  12 Mathematical Tables and other Aids to Computation. Published by the National Research Council; A Quarterly Journal edited on behalf of the Committee on Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation by Raymond Clare Archibald (and) Derrick Henry Lehmer. Copies as of July 19, 1972:

III * Number 21 * January 1948

III * Number 22 * April 1948 (2 copies)

III * Number 23 * July 1948

III * Number 24 * October, 1948

  13 Electrical Engineering Published monthly by the American Institute of Electrical Engineers; Editor --G. Ross Henninger. Volume 65, Numbers 8-9, August-September 1946; Number 10, October 1946; Number 11, November 1946 (These contain the articles by Aiken and Hopper on the Mark I)
4 1 Report No. 25, Bureau of Ordnance Computation Project, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts Nord -8555, TASK C. Auxiliary Functions for the Computation of the Moments of an Ogive, by Joseph O. Harrison, Jr., August 1946.
  2 Report No. 27, Bureau of Ordnance Computation Project, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Numeroscope, An Electronic-Photographic Printer for Large-Scale, High-Speed Calculating Machines, by Harrison W. Fuller January, 1947
  3 Popular Science Monthly (Volume 150: No. 5 -May 1947). "Inside the Biggest Man-made Brain: Navy's new calculator has steel bones, silver nerves, paper impulses, and can make mistakes" by Stephen L. Freeland (pp. 95-100). Mark II photographs: 6 men holding some of the wiring; angled view of main panel board; floor plan; printers and test panels; view over top looking at relay cubicles; composite front view of calculator; easy removal for replacement of stepping switches

"Office Work at Electronic Speed", article for submission to the magazine The Office. Tissue paper copy of original 6 pages seems to be about early 1948 (Mechanical brains complete SSEC and Mark II); 3 pages history and explanation of function, 3 pages possibilities and probable features for office work.


wet copy process copy of original 8 pages. Date: "8-48(36" (in top right corner of first page); penciled note on top of first page, "Jane is waiting for schedule "C" from Berkley"; part of an agreement (unknown at this time) for an electronic machine with magnetic tape memory, input, and output and fast memory of mercury tanks to be used in the business of life insurance (see 1.b.).
  5 Coding of a LaPlace Boundary Value Problem for the UNIVAC by Frances E. Snyder (Betty Holberton) and Hubert M. Livingston. Reprinted from Mathematical Tables and Other Aids To Computation, III, Number 25, January, 1949, pages 341-350.

Program of Association for Computing Machinery: Oak Ridge, Tennessee April 18, 19, 20, 1949. Sponsored by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies, Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corporation, Fairchild Corporation, NEPA Division: includes Grace Hopper's pen and pencil notes; job hunting time for her -offers she was made. Mark II Manual; 38 x 38 matrix in 59 1/2 hours included complete checking.

BINAC INSTRUCTIONS by Grace Hopper, 7/20/49

Report A-MP-3B on BINAC, 8/1/49; by AAK (Arthur A. Katz)

Topic List for Numerical Analysis, 8/1/49. Report A-TC-2B by HFMjr (Herbert F. Mitchell, Jr.)

Matrix Algebra on the BINAC 8/10/49. Report A-230-2B and A-240-3B bu HFMjr (Herbert F Mitchell, Jr.) 5 pages; a copy of the original (wet copy process of the time) first attempt at matrix operations on the BINAC.

Demonstration problem flowchart, 8/15/49 (16 1/2 x 22") by MKL (Margery K. League); a copy of the original (wet copy process of the time) looks somewhat like a ditto.

Matrix Inversion Routine for the BINAC, 9/23/49. Report A-240-3B by HFMjr (Herbert F. Mitchell, Jr.); 4 typed pages. P. 5 is a table for symbol position in the coding, p. 6 and 7 are flowcharts Matrix Inversion I and II drawn by Helen M. Diehl at Mitchell's direction.

Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation List of Personnel, October 24, 1949. 7 pages original ditto copy also 1 xerox copy -1970 vintage (1 copy by wet copy process -1950 vintage).

"Two Year's Work in Five Minutes: That's what BINAC can do! The story of this newest electronic "brain" is a report on progress of Philadelphia's newest industry." Reprint from the October, 1949, issue of PHILADELPHIA Magazine; 3 pages, xerox copy of same.

Grace Hopper's first code card for BINAC (3 x 5 card about 1949, in yellow envelope).

Invitation by The Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation "to attend a demonstration of the new electronic binary automatic computer BINAC": with space to write in person invited and date; 1949, 3 copies (one in an envelope) also 2 xerox pages of the invitation.

The BINAC: A Product of the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation. Copyright 1949 by Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation; 8 page pamphlet on the BINAC (to be given to people attending the demonstrations?)

"Mechanical Brains: An entirely new class of high-speed automatic computing machines, with rudimentary organs of memory, judgment, and mathematical logic, points to the second industrial revolution" By Louis N. Ridenour. Reprinted from Fortune Magazine. Copyright 1949 TIME Inc. (4 pages, including title page photographs: plugboards of ENIAC, A Mercury Memory Organ).
  6 An Introduction to The UNIVAC System. The information herein is not for publication, and is to be held confidential. Return to Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation, Broad and Spring Garden Streets Philadelphia 23, PA.

Table of Computers, c. 1949 (17 x 11") by Grace Murray Hopper. Lists: Agency, Type, Memory Type, Registers, Number System, Decimal Point, Multiply Time, Input, Output, Matrix, Computers: Mark I (ASCC), Bell Relay, ENIAC, Mark II, BINAC, Mark III, Whirlwind I, Hurricane, Maniac, EDVAC, and UNIVAC.

Demonstration Problem for BINAC, 3/11/49. Report A -X -3: Section A collates octal-coded decimal quantities Section B converts these quantities to binary notation, computes, and reconverts computed quantities to octal-coded decimal notation.

Proposed 7 pulse code for UNIVAC with odd checking pulse, 5/6/49. Code C-10 by F.E.S. (Frances Elizabeth Snyder)

UNIVAC Instructions code C-10 5/6/49, by F.E.S. (Frances Elizabeth Snyder)

UNIVAC Instructions Code C-10 by F.E.S. (Frances Elizabeth Snyder), 6 May 1949.

UNIVAC Instructions C-10, 6/10/49, by F.E.S. (Frances Elizabeth Snyder). 6 pages first page stamped "Second Draft", GMH initial at top of first page pencil corrections, pages 1, 2, 3, 4, page 6: Code C-10 Times in Minor Cycles 8/31/49 by FES

Matrix Multiplication Routine for the BINAC, 9/23/49. Report 230-2b (same as A-230-2B) by HFMjr (Herbert F. Mitchell, Jr.) 21 pages. Pages 1-6 report, 7-9 Tables I to III, 10-11 Explanation of Symbols, 12 table of symbols for coding purposes, 13 Flowchart for Matrix Multiplication drawn by HD (Helen Diehl), 14 Flowchart for Conversion of [C]n,m into [CHI]n,2n, 15-21 coding.

ADDENDUM The Barber-Colman Computer: Properties as of September 22, 1949, Barber-Colman Co., Rockford, Ill. 8-95(70 Edition of September 28, 1949 by E.C.B., 3 pages. Note: "A study model of the computer has been actually operating under test since May, 1949.

  7 UNIVAC Instruction Code C-10, 1/27/50 by FES (Frances Elizabeth Snyder), 15 pages: p. 11, Additional Information for Code C-10; p. 14, Pulse Code (2 copies, one initialed G. M. Hopper on pages 1, 11, and 14).

Solution of Matrix Equations of High Order by an Automatic Computer, 2/2/50: A-240-3 and A-240-4 by Herbert F. Mitchell, Jr., 23 pages; pages 1-19 text, 20-22 appendix, 23 Table I.

Outline for First Lecture: Programming Course for EMCC's Engineers, 4/4/50; A-TC-7 by HFM jr (Herbert F. Mitchell, Jr.), 4 pages.

Outline for Second Lecture: Programming Course for EMCC's Engineers, 11 April 1950; A-TC-7, no author but probably by H.F. Mitchell (see First Lecture), 2 pages.

Binary and Excess --Three Systems April 27, 1950: A-140-8 by AAK (Arthur A. Katz), original 11 June 1949; revised

27 September 1949; revised 27 April 1950.

MEMO to Mr. J.P. Eckert, Jr. from Miss Betty Snyder. Subject: Table of Percents of Total UNIVAC Time Utilized by Various Operations, DP-16; Code C-10, 8 July 1950.

Flow Chart Symbols, 15 June 50, MP-2 by Arthur A. Katz

MEMORANDUM for Henry W. Schrimpf, Methods Analyst, re: ONR Mathematical Computing Advisory Panel meeting of 8 June 1950 by R.B. Thornley, Systems Reviewer, 15 June 1950; 8 tissue paper sheets, pages 1-5 report of the meeting, 6-7 agenda of the meeting, 8 table: comparative figures of cost and staff for various computers, xerox copy of same.

Sample Table of Contents for Reports A-12, 22 August 1950 by GMH (Grace Murray Hopper), 1 page.

2 eye-fillers go well together! Joyce Holden, movie starlet, supplements her knowledge of electronics with a visit to the UNIVAC exhibit at the National Business Show." Systems Magazine, December 1950: p. 20 photograph: Miss Holden with mercury memory.

UNIVAC Programming Form No. 1-1101 (F), Copyright 1950 EMCC; a subsidiary of Remington Rand, Inc.

Technical Writing, by Joseph D. Chapline, Jr.: copyright 1950 by J.P. Chapline, Jr., First Prize Billin Award Contest, 1950, Engineers' Club, Philadelphia: 8 pages, pamphlet.
  8 Programming UNIVAC Fac-tronic Systems, Manual I Advance Copy (ditto copy); post-March 1950 when EMCC became subsidiary of Remington Rand (see P. I-1-3): I-1-1 to I-1-8 History of High Speed Computers and Electronics for Business, I-2-1 to I-2-11 Problem Analysis by Surveys to Preparation of a Process Flow Chart, I-3-1 to I-1-9 Functions of the UNIVAC Fac-tronic System, I-4-1 to I-4-33 The Language of the Computer, programming and coding, I-5-1 to I-5-7 Control and Tape Handling, I-6-1 to I-6-10 Digital Sorting, Collating, External Collating, Merging, Format of output, Columnar Arrangement.
  9 New Old Faithful, 7 February 1951; 050-11, no author "The purpose of this routine is to test all UNIVAC instructions and to perform a memory check." p.1.

"If Robots Run the Works: LOGIC applied to assembly lines through the use of mechanical brains may spell the end of manpower shortages for industry." by John Kord Lagemann, Nation's Business, March, 1951, pp. 31-33, 79-81.

Automatic Subroutine for the Elementary Transcendental Functions, October 1951, note in pencil on top of page: "Joe Harrison to Hopper problems lead to Compiler".

Joint AIEE-IRE Computer Conference Program

10 -12 December 1951 Benjamin Franklin Hotel, 9th and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia, PA.

Code Card UNIVAC I: original code card Grace Hopper developed; Copyright 1951 by EMCC; List of Instructions, UNIVAC Pulse Code.
  10 The Education of a Computer, Dr. Grace Murray Hopper. Presented at the meetings of the Association for Computing Machinery 2-3 May 1952.

Systems Engineer, 14 August 1952; one tissue paper original copy by RDW, corrected in blue pencil by Herbert F. Mitchell; first definition of a systems engineer.

Evening Course in Mathematics for Digital Computers Conducted by Dr. John W. Mauchly, Fall Semester 1952-1953, Department of Mathematics, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Temple University, Philadelphia 22, Pennsylvania: course description pamphlet.

"UNIVAC Beats Statisticians on Election Night" by A.C. Hancock. Reprint from Systems Magazine, December, 1952.

Original UNIVAC Printout of Election '52 Prediction "It's awfully early, but I'll go out on a limb. UNIVAC predicts --with 3,398,745 votes in --Stevenson Eisenhower

States 5 43

Electoral 93 438

Popular 18,986,436 32,915,049

The chances are now 100 to 1 in favor of the election of Eisenhower."; in blue ink, "property of Grace M. Hopper".

Program (Advance) Second Annual Joint AIEE, IRE, ACM Computer Conference and Exhibition, 10-12 December 1952, Park Sheraton Hotel, 7th Avenue and 55th Street, New York City: featuring "Input and Output Equipment Used in Computing Systems".

  11 "Compiling Routines" by Dr. Grace M. Hopper Vice-President, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia: Computers and Automation, formerly The Computing Machinery Field Vol. 2, No. 4 May, 1953.

RemRand News; Vol. IV, No. 20, New York 10, New York, July 1953

"Influence of Programming Techniques on the Design of Computers" By Grace M. Hopper and John W. Mauchly reprinted from the Proceedings of the I.R.E. Vol. 41, No. 10, October, 1953, pp. 1250-1254.

Organization Chart A Family Tree of Computers Influences by Grace Hopper, 4 December 1953.

  12 Preliminary Definitions: Data-Processing Compiler by Dr. Grace Murray Hopper, 31 January 1955;

Input-Output Instructions (Preliminary) by Dr. Grace Murray Hopper, 12 February 1955, 10 pages: pages 1-2, Input-Output Instructions; pages 1-5, Sample Inventory; 3 unmarked pages, 17 statements in English, French, and German.

Automatic Programming Development: Program for B-0 Compiler Development by Marjorie M. Mulder (?) and Norma C. Cousins, 14 March 1956; 2 pages, #1 Memo, #2 Flowchart of work setup.

Systems of Debugging Automatic Coding" by Charles Katz. Reprint from Monograph No. 3, Journal of the Franklin Institute Series, April, 1957, pages 17-27.

Glossary of computing terms compiled for the Franklin Institute Computing Center, 1958.

Automatic Programming Development: "Programming Package" or "Layette for a Computer" by Dr. Grace Murray Hopper, 23 July, 1959, 3 pages; pages 1-2 Memo, page 3 Check List of Programming to be delivered with a computer note in pencil on top sheet "Memo that started word software", xerox copy. MISSING

"Common Business Languages for ADP --A Progress Report", in John Diebold + Associates, Inc. NEWSLETTER, Vol. IV, No. 10 October 5, 1959: on top of first sheet, "Automatic Programming.

"Current Developments in Common Language Programming for Business Data Systems", to be presented by E.J. Albertson Methods Consultant, Methods Planning Division, before the Computer Applications Symposium sponsored by Armour Research Foundation of Illinois Institute of Technology at Chicago, Illinois on 28 October 1959.

Time Sequence U.S. Computers, by Grace Murray Hopper: time sequence only goes to 1959, 4 pages; page 1 time sequence, pages 2-4 list of computers and producers and destination; seems to go with a flowchart or family tree of computers, xerox copy.

Criteria for Evaluation of Compiling Systems: General Requirements (no author), 1 July 1960, 6 pages; page 1, Main title; pages 2-4 Specific Criteria; pages 5-6 Specific Evaluation of B-2.

General Views on COBOL by Jean E. Sammet, Data Systems Operations, Sylvania Electric Products, Inc. 189 B Street, Needham 94, Massachusetts, 2 December 1960.

Working Paper on a Vocabulary for Information Processing by a subcommittee of the American Standards Association, Sectional Committee X3, Computers and Information Processing: published for comments in Data Processing Magazine, February, 1965; pp. 26-28 I/O to Punched Card. March, 1965 pp. 31-33 Punched Tape to Zone Punch.

List and description of computers known to Cmdr. Hopper as of 1949-1950.

5 1 Report of Dr. Grace Hopper on 6 January 19??

Title page: COMPILING ROUTINES, 21 December 1953

Memo of report by Grace M. Hopper, 6 January 19??; abstract of the report.

Developments in Compiling Techniques to 31 December 1953, by Dr. Grace Murray Hopper, 31 December 1953, 11 pages: pages 1-9, 11 contain the report; page 10, table "Aids to Man's Work" taken from Electrical Engineering, January 1954; p. 24, the report.

"The Education of a Computer", (EXHIBIT A) by Dr. Grace Murray Hopper presented at the meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery 3 May 1952 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 12 pages.

"Compiling Routines", (EXHIBIT B) by Richard K. Ridgway, presented at the meetings of the Association for Computing Machinery, 8-9 September 1952, Toronto, Canada.

The Education of a Computer", (EXHIBIT C) by Grace Murray Hopper Reprinted from the Proceeding of a Symposium on Industrial Applications of Automatic Computing Equipment, Midwest Research Institute, Kansas City, Missouri: 8-9 January 1953, pp 139-144.

"Compiling Routines", (EXHIBIT D) by Dr. Grace Murray Hopper, Vice President, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia. Reprinted with permission from Computers and Automation, May 1953.

Bureau of the Census: Workshop on Automatic Programming for the UNIVAC, (EXHIBIT E) 16 July 1953, 3 pages; page 1: Agenda of the Workshop, pages 2-3: "Carne Problem: Response of a Particular R-C Circuit to a Pulsed Signal" by Frank M. Delaney; a demonstration of the A-1 Compiler on the UNIVAC.

Second Workshop on UNIVAC Automatic Programming, (EXHIBIT F) The Pentagon, 1 December 1953: Directorate of Management Analysis, Deputy Chief of Staff, Comptroller, Headquarters, U.S. Air Force, and Remington Rand, Inc

A-2 Compiler, four cartoons drawn by H-S Translation Phase, 28 October 1953, First Sweep 27 October 1953, Second Sweep 10/28/53, Main Compilation 10/??/53.

The A-2 Compiler by Dr. Grace Murray Hopper, 29 October 1953: 3 pages plus flowchart "Compiler Method of Problem Solution".

Statement of the Optical Ray Problem, (EXHIBIT F) 8 pages; page 1 statement of the problem, p. 2 data, p. 3 flow chart, p. 4 use of working storage, pp. 5-8 Information for Optical Ray Problem (i.e. coding).

Letter, 3 December 1953, (EXHIBIT G) to Dr. Grace Hopper from Elmore G. Lawton, LTC, CE Army Map Service, Washington, D.C.; interested in trying A-2 Compiler on their problems, has promise of increasing efficiency of computing with UNIVAC.

Letter, 14 December 1953, (EXHIBIT H) to Dr. Grace Hopper from Emil D. Schell, Chief, Mathematical Computation Branch, AFAPA-3B, DCS/Comptroller, Hq USAF, Washington 25, D.C.; made effective use of A-2 Compiler, yet somewhat handicapped by lack of descriptive material; want copies of expository material and operating instructions.

Letter, 14 December 1953, (EXHIBIT I) to Dr. Grace Hopper from Emil D. Schell, Chief, Mathematical Computation Branch, AFAPA-3B, DCS/Comptroller, Hq USAF, Washington 25, D.C.; used A-2 Compiler for an Air Force problem; found subroutine to compute the cosine of an angle contained errors, enclose their corrections.

Letter, (EXHIBIT J) to Dr. Grace Murray Hopper (illegible copy).

The A-2 Compiler System: Operations Manual, (EXHIBIT K) 15 November 1953. Copyright 1953 by Remington Rand, Inc. "A working paper intended to provide...all the information necessary to make use of the existing system." "The A-2 Compiler System has been developed by Richard K. Ridgway and Margaret H. Harper under the direction of Dr. Grace M. Hopper, Programming Research Section, Electronic Computer Department, Remington Rand, Inc."
  2 Survey of Automatic Data-handling and computing (3 pp. blank form).

Glossary of Automatic Programming Terms (2 copies).

UNIVAC System: 1948-1951 Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corp.

  3 Torrey, Volta, Robot Mathematician Knows All the Answers, POPULAR SCIENCE, October 1944, pp. 86-89, 222f.
  4 Davis, Watson, Ten Most Important Scientific Advancements of 1944, Tribune (handwritten in pencil, possibly NY Herald Tribune, in ad for Popular Science) (note: IBM, NYC, had xerox, find out from there).
  5 New York Times, special to dateline August 6th. "Algebra Machine Spurs Research Calling for Long Calculations: Harvard Receives Today Device to Solve in Hours Problems Taking So Much Time They Have Never Been Worked Out." 7 Aug. 1944.

Post (handwritten) "Automatic Brain for Harvard" p. 1 to continuation "Harvard Gets World's Greatest Calculator" W/picture Aiken, Hopper and interpolator.

  6 Grant, Lester "35-Ton Super-Brain Can Solve Hardest Mathematical Problem: It can do Simple Addition or Dynamic Equations; an Hour-Long Problem Solved in 5.8 Seconds; I.B.M. Presents Device to Harvard Today" Staff Correspondent to ? dateline Aug. 6-7 August 1944.
  7 New York Herald Tribune, "The Greatest of Mathematical Calculating Machines and Its Designer" 7 August 1944. Pictures Aiken with Mark I, Hopper with tape punch, Bloch with output.
  8 Galbraith, "Side Glances" (cartoon) date September 18th "Just what I predicted! Here's an automatic arithmetic machine that does everything --why should I go on making a fool of myself studying those miserable fractions?"

"Mathematics by the Millions" editorial.
  9 Mathematical Brain, title under photos in Boston paper, 7 Aug. 1944 Aiken and Hopper with interpolator, White with tape racks, Aiken with interpolator(?)
  10 "A Mathematical Robot With All the Answers" Philadelphia Inquirer, 20 August 1944. Aiken with Mark I, Hopper with tape punch, White with sequence mechanism.
  11 Wayman, Dorothy G. "Harvard Gets Huge Calculator: 51-Foot Machine Costs $250,000, Took Six Years" The Boston Daily Globe, 7 August 1944.
  12 Stevens, Paul "Fabulous Robot Brain Now Works for Navy" Herald (handwritten) Boston Herald Monday 7 August 1944 picture: Aiken w/calculator.

"The Aiken Machine" editorial taped to same page as above.

  13 Associated Press "New Machine Marvel As Math. Calculator" The Boston Daily Record, 7 August 1944.

Harvard Told Robot Brain Just a Starter" from a Boston paper.

  14 Calculator at Harvard Solves Navy Problems" The Christian Science Monitor, 7 August 1944, picture of Aiken with calculator.

Shellaby, Robert K (Staff Writer of The Christian Science Monitor) New Navy Calculator Solves Difficult Problems in Seconds.
  15 Harvard Service News, published by the Harvard Crimson, Tuesday, 8 August 1944, Vol 11, No. 59., 146:12:50. Two articles with pictures.

"Conant Accepts I.B.M. Calculator: High Navy Officers Witness Title Transfer: Mathematical Robot to Help University Research", p. 1-2 pictures: tape punch, Hopper and White with sequence mechanism, Aiken and Hopper with interpolator, Bloch with calculator.

"Electric Brain Solves Functions, Interpolation, Differentials, Trig: Auto Circuits Work For BuShip in War" p. 1-2 picture: Campbell and Verdonck (?) setting constants.

  16 "Presto! Math Made Easy With New 'Gadget': Plainfielder's Niece is Operator of Robot 'Einstein' Plainfield, N.J. paper, August 1944 Picture of Hopper and tape punch, good biographic data.
  17 Gobind Behari Lal (Noted Science Analyst) "Harvard's Robot Super-Brain" The American Weekly, 15 October 1944.
  18 "Mathematical Robot", TIME, 14 August 1944, picture Aiken with tape and Mark I topic: Science.
  19 "Giant New Calculator" Science News Letter 12 August 1944, topic: Engineering-Mathematics.
  20 Think Machine" under picture of Hopper with tape punch, Newsweek, 14 August 1944.
  21 "World's Greatest Machine for Automatic Calculation" Science News Letter, 19 August 1944; picture of calculator on front cover topic: Engineering-Mathematics.
  22 "Robot Works Problems Never Before Solved", Popular Mechanics Magazine, October 1944; Pictures: Aiken with calculator, Hopper with tape punch, Verdonck(?) with tape racks, view of tape.
  23 Harvard Alumni Bulletin: War Summer, Vol 47, No. 1, 23 September 1944. Articles include:

Harvard's "Mechanical Brain"

IBM Vision

Who Thinks?

Presentation Ceremony


Automatic Check on Errors


pictures: front view of calculator with White

Aiken with Hamilton, Lake and Durfee

Watson giving speech at presentation

Aiken, Hopper, Campbell, White, Verdonck in front of Mark I

comic: Yardley in the Baltimore Sun

  24 "'Mechanical Brain' from Harvard To Seek 'Push-Button' War Answers" Boston Sunday Herald, 7 March 1948, (AP) Mark II, move to Dahlgren.

"25-Ton 'Mechanical Brain' Built at Harvard for Navy" Boston Sunday Globe, 7 March 1948; photo of Mark II, move to Dahlgren.

"New, Faster Mechanical Brain Being Built at Harvard for Navy" Paul Stevens (2 copies) 22 August 194?, photos: Aiken, Hopper Mark III.

"Why Study When Machine Knows All the Answers?: Ivy Orator Says Mechanical Brain Solves Conant's Income Tax and Makes Salads", (2 copies) Boston Daily Globe, Wednesday, 4 June 1947.

  24 Navy Calculating Machine Moved to Dahlgren, Va." a Boston paper, day after 1st Naval District announced people going with calculator.

"Mechanical Brain Moved to Navy Proving Ground" New York Herald Tribune, Sunday, 8 March 1948 (AP) Mark II, Move to Dahlgren.

"Multiplies Billions in One Flash: Navy's New Machine Made at Harvard for $600,000" Robert M. Farrington, a Boston paper, 7 March 1948 (AP), Mark II, move to Dahlgren.

"Harvard Unveils Huge Calculator: It Will Solve Guided Missile Ballistic Problems and New Aerodynamics for Navy: Thrice Forerunner's Size: Mark II Twelve Times as Fast, Doing in a Second a Multiplication Running into Billions" William M. Blair (Special to the New York Times), 8 January 1947, Mark II dedication, 47 Symposium 1st day.

"Biggest Harvard 'Brain' Tuned to Navy Rockets" (Page 1) continued (Page 12) as "Harvard Bares Biggest 'Brain' to Cerebrate on Navy Rockets" W.E. Playfair, Boston Herald, Wednesday, 8 January 1947 photo: Miss Kepke with abacus in front of Mark I, mislabeled Mark II. Mark II, 1st day 47 Symposium.

"Mammoth Mechanical Brain Is Irked by Too Much Work" New York Herald Tribune, 12 January 1947, Mark II.

"Huge Mechanical Brain Operated at Unveiling", 8 January 1947, (INS) Mark II.

"Electrons Trained At Harvard Lab: Research Expert is Developing New Super-Calculator Recording Device", John Lynch, Boston Traveler, Friday, 10 January 1947. Photo: Harrison W. Fuller and Numeroscope Fuller and Numeroscope description.

Christian Science Monitor, Tuesday, 14 October 1947, Page 9 (1st page, Second Sect.) "Mechanical Calculators Eject Right Answers Quicker'n a Flash", full page on high speed calculators (6 copies) including: "Demands of War Spurred Push-Button Analyzers: Electronics Count Years in Seconds" by Herbert B. Nichols (Natural Science Editor, CSM), survey of U.S. Development. "Defies Imagination" by Dr. E.U. Condon (Director of the National Bureau of Standards). "Overseas Use of Robot Calculators Speeded: Rapid Solutions Welcomed" by H.B. Nichols, includes: England, France, Sweden, the Netherlands, Czechoslovakia, Norway photographs: full view Mark II, ENIAC switches, Mark II interpolators, MIT's electro-mechanical differential analyzer output paper tape.

Harvard Alumni Bulletin, p. 618 photo of Mark I, full-length.

"Dots on Film Latest in Speed Calculation", Boston Sunday Herald, 9 November 1947 (AP); Kodak photographic memory.

"Machine Can Calculate and Remember", The Washington Post, Wednesday, 28 January 1948 (AP) IBM SSEC.

"SCIENCE IN REVIEW: 'Memory' Device: Calculator Control Unit Works With Super-Human Speed" Waldemar Kaempffert, page E9: memory device -Kodak photographic memory.

New I.B.M. Electrical Brain Eases Shortage of Scientists: Frees Top Experts From Computation Drudgery in Research So That They Can Solve More Problems and Open New Fields of Inquiry", John J. O'Neill, New York Herald Tribune, 8 February 1948, page 10 II IBM SSEC, IBM biased.

"New Giant 'Brain' Does Wizard Work: Bureau of Standards Says It Can Solve Vast Mathematical Problems in a Few Minutes: Laboratory for This City: Others to Be Set Elsewhere --Computation Machine Results From War Findings", New York Times, 25 August 194?; 1st page second section, NBS machines and laboratories announced.

"Science's New 'Memory Machines' do Virtually Everything But Talk", W.E. Playfair, Boston Herald, Thursday, 9 January 1947; 47 Symposium -memory devices -Sharpless (EDVAC) and Forrester (Whirlwind).

"Dr. Bush Honored for Public Service: Atom Bomb Scientist Gets Hoover Medal -Sees Better Life Through Research", New York Times, Friday, 31 January 1947. Photo: Bush (page C5). Bush gets Hoover Medal of American Institute of Electrical Engineers.

"Computers Beat Brain: New Electronic Devices Said to Be 100,000 Times Faster" New York Times, Friday, 31 January 1947 (page C5). American Institute of Electrical Engineers Sharpless (EDVAC), Forrester (Whirlwind).

"Wiener Denounces Devices 'For War': M.I.T. Mathematician Rebuffs Bid to Harvard Symposium of Calculating Machinery" Special to the New York Times, 9 January 1947; refuse to speak at Navy-sponsored conference.

"M.I.T. Scientist 'Rebels' At War Research Talk: Wiener Cites Moral Issue in Use of Discoveries Against Civilians", Sara White Boston Traveler, Wednesday, 8 January 1947 (page 1, 12); part of text of letter to Atlantic Monthly entitled "A Scientist Rebels".

"Conscience and the Machine" editorial, New York Herald Tribune, Friday, 10 January 1947, (2 copies p. 18); Wiener, military use of scientific developments.

"Conscience in Science" editorial, Boston Globe, Friday, 10 January 1947, (page 18); Wiener, progress in science and destruction of human life.

"Making Weather to Order", John Kord Lagemann, TW 23 February 1947 pp. 4, 5, 28. Dr. V.K. Zworykin of RCA, calculating machine for weather control. Note: designed by von Neumann, Zworykin, and Spilhaus of NYU during WWII and declassified in 1947, under construction.

"Electronic Calculator Delivered to Bureau of Census: Science and Industry Are Aided By New Electronic Calculators" Edwin L. Dale, Jr., New York Herald Tribune, 5 August 1951 Uses of Computers, UNIVAC, REAC, IBM, etc. Photos: 1st UNIVAC to Bureau of Census, 200th REAC off assembly line.

  25 Christian Science Monitor, Wednesday, 20 March 1946 (1st page 2nd section) "New Mathematical Robots Unscramble Digits to Multiply Inventions", full page on high speed calculators including: "Research Labs Calculate Devices To Bridge Years of Two Plus Two" by Herbert B. Nichols (Natural Science Editor of The Christian Science Monitor), survey of developments, MIT's differential analyzers, etc.; "Gears Failed to Mesh Century Ago" by a Staff Correspondent early computing machines, Babbage, Pascal, Leibnitz "ENIAC Weighs 30 Tons, Fires Answers for Army" Special to the CSM from Philadelphia ENIAC, uses, problems; "Engineers Win Fast Answers From Electric 'Thinking Cap'", Special to the CSM from Pittsburgh Westinghouse network calculator.

Photographs: ENIAC, setting constants, wiring, MIT electro-mechanical differential analyzer, input graphically; Westinghouse network calculator; ENIAC digit trays; Aiken and Hopper with difference engine.

"60-Day Moving Job Just Case of Harvard 'Brain' Fatigue", W.E. Playfair Boston Sunday Herald, 15 September 1946 (p. 1, 2C., 2 copies) move to Computation Lab from Cruft Lab, description of lab.

"Fabulous Robot Brain Now Works For Navy", Paul Stevens, Boston Herald, Monday, 7 August 1944, (pp. 1, 6.) also tape, Mark I dedication.

"Behemoths Multiply: British Calculators Got There First", Herbert B. Nichols, Christian Science Monitor, Babbage and Aiken.

"Britain's First Mathematical Engine", photo, Christian Science Monitor, Thursday, 9 January 1947; Richard Babbage and Aiken and piece of difference engine.

"Computation Laboratory Dedicated at Harvard" Christian Science Monitor, Tuesday, 7 January 1947 (p. 1, 2. 3 copies), 1st day of 47 Symposium. Photos (page 2): "At Harvard Laboratory Dedication" Adm. Baker, Grace Hopper, Capt. Van Eaton Aiken with Prof. Archibald of Brown showing constants.

"Harvard Opens Laboratory for Computation: Hopes to Use Mechanical Brain to Solve Problems of All Social Sciences", Stephen White, New York Times(?) 29 December 1946: new Comp Lab, uses of calculators.

"Says Era of Mechanical Calculators Lies Ahead of Us: Professor Aiken of Harvard Computation Laboratory Talks of Wonders of His Three Mathematical Giants", George Brinton Beal, Boston Sunday Post, 28 December 1947 (p. A-4.) Aiken, Mark I, II, III, previous machines -Babbage, adding machines photo: Richard Babbage, Aiken, Difference Engine.

"Harvard's New 'Brain' Permits Social Studies", Boston Herald, Friday, 10 January 1947; Dr. Wassily Leontief, economic analysis on computers.

"Calculators' Use To Solve Social Issues Forecast: Harvard Economist Asserts Nation Could Evolve Its Future By Such Machines", Stephen White, New York Times 10 January 1947; Leontief, economic analysis by computers at 47 Symposium.

"Forecast of the Future" editorial, Herald Tribune, 12 January 1947 (handwritten) analysis of economics by computers forecast.

"Highbrow Harvard Bows To A Robot Brain", Sunday Mirror Magazine, 5 August 1945; Mark I, tests against known answers, uses for Navy.

"Symposium of Calculator Experts Opens New Computator Laboratory: Rear Admiral Joy Pledges Use of Naval Calculating Machinery To Scientists; Aiken Stresses Acute Need for Convention; President Conant, Sick, Is Unable to Give Address" The Harvard Crimson Wednesday, 8 January 1947 (p. 1), 1st day of 47 Symposium.

"New Vistas in Post-War Science Research Seen in Debut of Computation Lab Today: Two-Story Brick Structure Shelters Famed Mark I IBM Machine Calculator", Shane E. Riorden '46 The Harvard Crimson, Tuesday, 7 January 1947 (p. 2.) Mark I, move to Comp Lab, situation at Harvard at time. Photos: Comp Lab Aiken, Hopper with page for photo-offset; Eddy Lucchini (technical operator) setting plugging instructions.

"Mechanical 'Memory' Test In Symposium at Harvard", Herbert B. Nichols, Christian Science Monitor, 8 January 1947, (p. 3.); discussion of 'memory' in calculating machines at 47 Symposium.

"Robot Solves Complicated Mathematics", Natural Science Editor (Herbert B. Nichols) Christian Science Monitor, 8 January 1947, (p. 3.) Interview with Aiken, methods of computation.

"Machinery Passes Math Exam", photo, Christian Science Monitor, 30 December 1946 (p. 1). Aiken with tape for Mark I, labeled results of computation (?).

"Harvard Puts Big Calculator in New Home", Natural Science Editor (H.B.N.), Christian Science Monitor, 30 December 1946 (p. 2.). Comp Lab, moving Mark I.

"New Computer Lightning Fast: Army Call It the World's Best Calculator", The New York Sun, Friday, 15 February 1946 (AP p. 1); second section, ENIAC announcement to the press.

Mechanical Einstein' Calculator Has Mathematical World in Palm", The Boston Herald, Friday, 15 February 1946 (AP) ENIAC.

"Electronic 'Brain' Computes 100-Year Problem in 2 Hours", 15 February 1946 (? paper); ENIAC, set-up, compare with MIT differential analyzer.

"Army's Electronic 'Brains' Addled", The Boston Herald, Wednesday, 21 April 1948 (AP); reports tube breakdowns, lack of personnel to keep ENIAC busy.

"Computer Unit Sold To Remington Rand", New York Times, 2 March 1950; sale of Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corp. to Remington Rand.

"Electronic Brains: Calculating Machines Help Lighten Industry's Record Keeping Chores: High-Speed Computers Take Inventory, Figure Utility and Insurance Bills, An Aid to Oil-Well Drillers", James P. Thurber, Jr., The Wall Street Journal, 29 July 1953 (p. 1, 15).

"Electronic Brains: Computing Machines Help Build Airplanes Faster and Cheaper: Tell How Many Rivets to Put On a Wing; Steal Work of Wind Tunnels, Test Pilots; Year's Job Done in Minutes", Walter H. Oxstein The Wall Street Journal, 14 August 1950 (p. 1), West Coast developments.

"2150 A.D.**Preview of the Robot Age: Machines that think and do the hard work will free men to develop their real talents", Edmund C. Berkeley, New York Times Magazine, Sunday, 19 November 1950 (pp. 19, 68f).

"Network 'Drafts' UNIVAC for Election Coverage: CBS to Use Electronic Robot To Forecast Election Results" The Evening Bulletin, Philadelphia, Wednesday, 15 October 1952. UNIVAC in 1952 election photo: Eckert, Cronkite and operator with UNIVAC.

"Mechanical Brain Strictly a Moron: 60-Pound Device Balks at Adding Two and Two", Newark Evening News, Friday, 19 May 1950 (AP p. 13). Berkeley's 'Simple Simon', photo: "Mechanical Mental Midget", Berkeley, Vall and Jensen (builders).

"Tiny Mechanical 'Brain' Notable for Stupidity", New York Times, Thursday, 18 May 1950: announcement of unveiling of 'Simple Simon' at Columbia.

"Tiny 'Brain' Robot Not So Very Dumb: 'Simple Simon' Proves That He's Clever Enough to Know Own Limitations", New York Times, Friday, 19 May 1950 Berkeley's 'Simple Simon' photo: "Mechanical 'Brain' Demonstrated At Columbia"; Berkeley, Vall and Jensen (builders) and 'Simple Simon".

Go To Series 8 thru 10 


Revised: July 17, 2007