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THE ESKIMO PIE CORPORATION RECORDS, 1921-1996
#553

(15 cu. ft.: 31 DB, 19 F/O)

by: Maurita Baldock, 1998

History

Eskimo Pie, America's first chocolate covered ice cream bar, was invented by Christian Kent Nelson in his home laboratory in 1920. Nelson patented his invention and the ice cream bar quickly rose in popularity in America. By 1922, Nelson was earning $2000 per day in royalties on his product.

Christian K. Nelson was born on March 12, 1893, in Gunstrup, Denmark, to Pedar Nelson and Margerethe Madesen Nelson. While Nelson was an infant, the seven Nelson children and their parents emigrated to the United States. The dairy farming family settled in Illinois, Wisconsin, and finally in Iowa in 1903. In Onawa, Iowa, Nelson opened a small confectionery shop near the high school where he worked as a teacher.

The inspiration for the invention of Eskimo Pie was a boy's indecision in Nelson's confectionery store in 1920. A boy started to buy ice cream, then changed his mind and bought a chocolate bar. Nelson inquired as to why he did not buy both. The boy replied, "Sure I know-I want 'em both, but I only got a nickel." For weeks after the incident, Nelson worked around the clock experimenting with different methods of sticking melted chocolate to frozen ice cream until he found cocoa butter to be the perfect adherent.

Immediately, he produced 500 ice cream bricks with a chocolate candy coating. The "I-Scream Bars" were a hit at the local village fireman's picnic and Nelson began searching for companies to manufacture his new product.

On July 13, 1921, Nelson and chocolate maker Russell C. Stover entered into a joint agreement (other image) to market and produce the product. It was decided the name would change from Nelson's "I-Scream Bar" to "Eskimo Pie". In the hand-written agreement composed the same day the two met for the first time, the entrepreneurs agreed to "coat ice cream with chocolate [sic] divide the profits equally." They decided to sell the manufacturing rights to local ice cream companies for $500 to $1000, plus royalties on each Eskimo Pie sold.

Nelson and Stover began their business venture with an advertising campaign in Des Moines, Iowa. The first 250,000 pies produced were sold within 24 hours. By spring 1922, 2,700 manufacturers sold one million Eskimo Pies per day.

On January 24, 1922, the United States granted patent number 1,404,539 for the Eskimo Pie. Nelson's patent applied to any type of frozen material covered with candy. Nelson also had the name "Eskimo Pie" trademarked. Initially, even the word "Pie" in a brand name frozen treat was covered by this trademark. The breadth of the patent was detrimental to Eskimo Pie because of growing legal costs associated with its defense.

Russell Stover sold his share of the company in 1922. Because of the cost of litigation, high salaried salesmen, and difficulties in collecting royalties, the company was sold in 1924. Eskimo Pie became a subsidiary of United States Foil Company, the supplier of the Eskimo Pie wrapper. Headed by R.S. Reynolds, Sr., the company later became known as Reynolds Metals Company.

In 1925, dry ice was invented. Nelson was eager to find a way to make buying Eskimo Pie as easy as buying another snack from a vendor. Nelson began to market thermal jugs with dry ice supplied with Eskimo Pies to vendors without access to a freezer. This increased visibility and distribution and made Eskimo Pie an "impulse" item.

The patent litigation continued until October 3, 1929, when the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the decision of the lower courts declared that the 1922 patent was invalid, due to "lack of invention." Eskimo Pie resembled an earlier product that also called for ice cream with cocoa butter dipped in chocolate. The judge declared that Nelson had merely changed the shape for an existing product. Even his trademark on the work "pie" was invalidated, as the judge said the word had a wide variety of use.

Nelson retired to California and assigned his royalties to his wife, Myrtle Skidmore "Skid" Nelson. However, Nelson, reportedly "bored," came out of retirement in 1935 to rejoin Eskimo Pie and work on new products. Nelson continued to create ice cream innovations such as ice patties and colored ice cream holiday centers within Eskimo Pie products.

In 1955, Nelson was awarded a patent for his Eskimo Machine. The machinery squeezed out ice cream of the correct dimensions which was then cut into bars. This process was faster than the older method of molding the ice cream bar.

After a decline in sales during the Great Depression, Eskimo Pie received a boost from sales to the United States armed forces during World II. Rising commodity prices in the post war era forced the company to reduce the size of the product. However, the distinct foil wrapper remained the same. Nelson officially retired from Eskimo Pie in 1961 as vice-president and director of research. Surviving his wife by one year, he died March 8, 1992.

In 1992, Eskimo Pie became independent of Reynolds' Metals. The company continues to market dozens of shapes, sizes, and types of frozen treats. The brand name Eskimo Pie continues to have strong consumer recognition and has appeared in cartoons, movies, and even in Funk and Wagnall's Dictionary.

Sources

"He Made Kids Scream for Ice Cream," 1959, manuscript from collection

Nelson-Stover Agreement, July 13, 1921, manuscript from the collection

U.S. Patent 1,404,539 January 24, 1922, manuscript from the collection

Scope and Content Note

The Eskimo Pie Collection consists primarily of materials relating to the advertising, business, and packaging of its ice cream products. The collection includes numerous photographs, printed advertisements, and packaging materials. It also contains company annual reports and newsletters, business history, information on machines and equipment used in manufacturing the product, and the history of the invention of Eskimo Pie. The formulas and directions for creating many of the Eskimo Pie products are included.

Series 1: CHRISTIAN NELSON PAPERS, 1921-1992 - Contains personal information on the inventor of Eskimo Pie, Christian Nelson, including his correspondence and financial information. Most of the correspondence is business related.

Subseries 1: Christian Nelson Personal Papers, 1933-1988 - These materials include tax information, bank account information, and a few documents related to his personal life. Not many documents of a personal nature are in the collection. Most details of his life are found in magazine and newspaper clippings in Series 2, Subseries 4.

Subseries 2: Nelson Correspondence (by correspondent), 1944-1946 - This subseries contains Nelson's business correspondence previously arranged alphabetically by correspondent. The correspondence only dates from 1944-1946.

Subseries 3: Nelson and Business Correspondence (by date), 1920-1990 - Arranged chronologically by decade, this correspondence consists of letters on various topics that were scattered throughout the collection. Most of these letters are business related but many have personal notations within them. Not all letters include Nelson.

Series 2: HISTORICAL AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION, 1921-1992 - This series includes any information that helps to narrate the story of the invention of Eskimo Pie and the company that sold the product. It contains company scrapbooks of specific years, important historical documents regarding Eskimo Pie history, and newspaper clippings and magazine articles that summarize the detailed history of the company.

Subseries 1: Background Information on Company, 1921-1992 - This information includes company scrapbooks that contain articles, letters, promotions and/or advertisements for a particular year. The scrapbooks often relate the history of Eskimo Pie in past years as well as representing the year of the scrapbook. Other materials such as the Eskimo Pie patent, and information on Christian Nelson and Russell Stover with their original agreement are included.

Subseries 2: Information on Related Companies, 1947-1987 - This material contains annual reports and the company publications of Reynolds Aluminum which supplied the Eskimo Pie wrapper. Eskimo Pie became a subsidiary of Reynolds (then known as US Foil Company) in 1924. Other companies whose products are related to Eskimo Pie are also included.

Subseries 3: Patent and Legal Information, 1921-1965 - Important legal documents of the Eskimo Pie business are arranged in this subseries by type of document. The patents include many of Nelson's patents as well as other patents of invention related to ice cream.

Subseries 4: Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1920-1990 - Most articles in the subseries are related to the history or business of Eskimo Pie, although a few are not. Cartoons that use the Eskimo Pie name are included.

Series 3: MANUFACTURING AND EQUIPMENT, 1922-1969 - This series documents the machinery and equipment used to produce, package, and freeze the ice cream. It also includes the specific formulas of Eskimo Pie products with ingredients and directions for their preparation.

Subseries 1: Machinery, 1922-1969 - This series is comprised of catalogues, plans, and brochures on general types of machines used to create ice cream along with very specific types of machines with specific names (such as the Eskimo Machine). Some photographs of equipment are included in the catalogues but other photographs of machinery can be found in Photographs under Series 5, Subseries 1.

Subseries 2: Formulae and Directions, 1942-1963 - Formulas and specifications to create certain Eskimo Pie products make up this series. The formulas and directions were sent to franchise manufacturers and field personnel and state how to use the machinery to create the desired product. The folders labeled with product numbers include booklets of formulas and the folders labeled with formulas of specific products are loose pages or additions to the booklets. Other formulas and directions for specific products can be found in some of the promotional brochures in Series 7 Subseries 4.

Series 4: ESKIMO PIE COMPANY RECORDS, 1951-1995 - The company records in this series are comprised of Annual Company Reports and Company Newsletters.

Subseries 1: Eskimo Pie Annual Reports, 1951-1995 - The Annual Reports include financial information as well as the names of the directors, officers, and management personnel for that particular year.

Subseries 2: Eskimo Pie Newsletters, 1968-1979 - These monthly newsletters function as a company information tool for employees. They include company news along with general interest features such as cartoons, news of the company sports teams, announcements of vacations and birthdays, etc.

Series 5: PHOTOGRAPHS AND NEGATIVES, 1928-1990 - This series consists of photographs and negatives of various subject matter.

Subseries 1: Photographs, 1928-1990 - These photographs are arranged by subject matter. Some of the main subject categories of the photographs include machinery and equipment, advertising, promotions, and pictures of Christian Nelson at company events.

Subseries 2: Photograph Negatives and Slides, 1928-1990 - This subseries includes many negatives of the photographs already contained in Subseries 1. Only one folder in this subseries is slides.

Series 6: ESKIMO PIE BUSINESS INFORMATION, 1921-1990 - This series consists of any records pertaining to the business of the Eskimo Pie company including finances, marketing, sales, promotions, personnel information, packaging, and publications. It does not include advertising.

Subseries 1: General Business Information, 1922-1990 - Business information that did not fit into any particular business category comprises this series. Each folder's information is very specific to its own particular topic and is arranged chronologically.

Subseries 2: Marketing, 1927-1996 - This series includes any marketing information that attempts to sell Eskimo Pie to the consumer. This information does overlap with some aspects of advertising and packaging, as they also function as marketing tools to promote increased buying. It also includes promotional materials for the film "Who's Minding the Mint?" which featured an Eskimo Pie ice cream man as a character. The information is organized by specific years or time periods.

Subseries 3: Employee Information and Incentives, 1952-1970 - This subseries includes general information such as personnel lists and phone lists but also includes incentive campaigns for employees. These incentive campaigns were directed towards salesmen, particularly route driver salesman, and propose prize rewards for sales. The booklets in box 31 include the ads for incentives to be sent out to the salesmen throughout the year. Along with the ads are explanations of the incentive and the company's reasoning behind its approach to the salesmen in that particular ad. The prizes to be awarded are not specifically listed but are displayed in pictures in many of the incentive ads.

Subseries 4: Premiums and Promotions, 1937-1990 - Information on premiums in which consumers save wrappers and send them to Eskimo Pie for goods as well as special promotions are included in this subseries. Lists of goods that can be purchased with the corresponding number of wrappers are included. Other promotions include prizes for contests or special offers with Eskimo proofs of purchase. This subseries includes promotional brochures that explain the new promotions.

Subseries 5: Financial Information, 1932-1990 - Any business information pertaining to Eskimo Pie's finances, sales, and\or profits is included in this subseries. It also includes U.S. Foil Royalty Reports that report the number of wrappers shipped and manufactured of different businesses including those of Eskimo Pie (Eskimo Pie was a subsidiary of U.S. Foil). The U.S. Foil reports are addressed to Myrtle Nelson. Bank information of Frozen Products, Inc., which manufactured Eskimo Pie and Eskimo confections, is also included.

Subseries 6: Packaging, 1921-1954 - This subseries consists of actual boxes, wrappers, lids, and sticks that were used in packaging Eskimo Pie products. The materials are organized by types of packaging and the dates of the materials are generally unclear.

Subseries 7: General Publications Related to Ice Cream, 1935-1990 - Listed in chronological order, these publications provide information on the ice cream, dairy, and chocolate industries in a specific time frame. These publications generally do not mention Eskimo Pie products.

Series 7: ADVERTISING MATERIALS, 1922-1992 - The advertising materials included in this series mainly consist of the actual advertisements. Little written information on specific advertising campaigns is included with the print, radio, and television advertisements. The promotional brochures do include some written information on the product the company is promoting.

Subseries 1: Print Advertisements, 1922-1989 - This subseries includes a range of types of advertisements. Some ads include printed ads in magazines and newspapers while many are proofs of advertisements that will go to print. Other types of advertisements include banners, decals, and railstrips which appear to be point of purchase displays for vending machines, ice cream stands, ice cream carts or trucks, or even the grocery store. Although the scrapbooks mainly consist of advertisements, they also include packaging, machinery, and marketing information.

Subseries 2: Radio Advertisements, 1930-1985 - This small subseries includes scripts for radio announcements and advertisements. The sheet music for the radio jingles, "I Scream, You Scream, We All Scream for Ice Cream," "Oh My, Eskimo Pie,"and "New Eskimo Pie on a Stick" are included here.

Subseries 3: Television Advertisements, 1948-1992 - The television materials included consist of story boards, scripts for television advertisements with corresponding still photographs, and little written information on television campaigns.

Subseries 4: Promotional Brochures, 1951-1964 - This subseries consists of materials pertaining to new products or special occasion items (e.g. Christmas, Halloween). The brochures were probably sent to vendors, distributors and /or ice cream producers. The brochures intended for vendors and distributors contain samples of advertising, packaging, point of purchase displays and in some instances, inexpensive premiums to be awarded to consumers. The brochures for ice cream manufacturers contain some of the same material as well as the formula and directions for the product, a list of equipment required, and a price list for rental of that equipment. The material, contained in the boxes has been organized alphabetically where possible.

Series 8: MISCELLANEOUS, 1921-1979 - This series includes materials found in the collection with no apparent relation to Christian Nelson or Eskimo Pie. Random materials that display the Eskimo Pie logo are also included.

Provenance

The Eskimo Pie collection was donated on May 10, 1996, to the National Museum of American History, Archives Center.

Related Collections

The Archives Center holds many collections related to ice cream and the food industry including:

  • #58 Warshaw Collection of Business Americana (see Dairy)
  • #78 Faris and Yamna Naff Arab-American Collection, 1880-1995 (see waffle cone machine)
  • #112 Famous Amos Collection, 1979-1983
  • #300 Sam DeVincent Collection of Illustrated American Sheet Music, 1790-1980 (see Ice Cream)
  • #451 Good Humor Collection, 1930-1990
  • #588 Carvel Ice Cream Records, 1934-1989
  • #594 Krispy Kreme Donut Corporation Records, 1937-1997

In addition the Division of Cultural History has several objects that are also part of the Eskimo Pie Collection.

Container List

Box Folder
Series 1: CHRISTIAN NELSON PAPERS, 1921-1992

Subseries 1: Christian Nelson Personal Papers, 1933-1988

1 1 Personal papers of Christian Nelson
2 Tax information and return 1933, 1934, 1944
3 Bank of America Statements, 1944
4 Bank of America Statements, 1945
5 Bank of America Statements, 1946
6 Bank of America Statements, 1947
7 Nelson insurance policies, 1943-1945
8 Who's Who in the East form for Christian Nelson
9 Purchase receipts
10 Recipes
11 Eskimo Pie history in directory of counties in Missouri River Valley, 1988
12 Happy Birthday Chris Nelson sign and card
Series 1: CHRISTIAN NELSON PAPERS, 1921-1992

Subseries 2: Nelson Correspondence (by correspondent), 1944-1946

2 1 Ambrosia Chocolate Company
2 John N. Anhut
3 J. Murray Brown
4 Pete Bruner
5 R. E. Bruner Jr.
6 Tom Cochtran
7 Golden State, L.A. and San Francisco
8 Golden State Company. Ltd.
9-10 D. L. Gunn
11 Brinton Hamid - Ford Hospital
12 Tom Hanrahan
13 Tom Hanrahan - Los Angeles
14 Bob Horrobin
15 R. E. Horrobin
16 J. L. Hudson
17 R. C. Hutchinson
18 Delora and Olav Johnson
19 L.A. Athletic Club
20 Miss Langley - Frozen products
21-22 W. J. Leahy
23 P. D. Nelson
24 J. B. Pearl - Nell and Jacks
25 F. S. RedField
3 1 F. S. Redfield
2 The Reed Company
3 Redman's Storage
4 U. S. Foil And Reynolds Metals
5 Joe Ryan
6 Wm. Burleigh Skidmore
7 Skunk's Services
8 Bill Staninger
9 Win Warnick
10 Win G. Warnick
11 W. S. Watts
Series 1: CHRISTIAN NELSON PAPERS, 1921-1992

Subseries 3: Nelson and Business Correspondence (by date), 1920-1990

4 1 Correspondence, no dates
2-3 Correspondence 1920's
4 C. Nelson 1922 Correspondence File
5 Correspondence 1930's
6 Correspondence 1940's
7 1943 Letters of Congratulation on Appointment as Vice-President
8-9 Correspondence 1950's
10 Correspondence from J. Louis Reynolds and Staff 1953-1954
11 C. Nelson 1957-1958 File
12 Correspondence 1960's
5 1 Correspondence 1960's
2 Correspondence File 1960-1962
3 Correspondence - personal and business, 1962-1964
4 Correspondence re 1960 sale of stock to Nelson (Proposed)
5 Correspondence 1970's
6 Correspondence 1980's
7 Correspondence 1990's
Series 2: HISTORICAL AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION, 1921-1992

Subseries 1: Background Information on Eskimo Pie, 1921-1992

36 1 Scrapbook, 1922
46 1 Loose pages from 1922 scrapbook
2 Scrapbook, 1928
37 1 Scrapbook, 1961-1962
38 1 Scrapbook, 1963
6 1 Information re: Eskimo Pie
2 Articles re: history of Eskimo Pie
3 Interview re: Eskimo Pie history
4 Personal information re: Christian Nelson
5 Biographical information on Russell Stover
6 Original agreement Between C. Nelson and R. Stover, July, 1921 (other image)
7 Eskimo Pie Patent
8 Ice Cream History
9 "He Made Kids Scream for More Ice Cream," draft of an article
Series 2: HISTORICAL AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION, 1921-1992

Subseries 2: Information on Related Companies, 1947-1987

10 Information on Heath Bars
11 Product information on other companies
12 Eskimo Pie and Beatrice Foods
13 Beatrice Foods Annual Report, 1957
14 Southland Corporation 1977 Annual Report
34 1 Reynolds Metals Company Annual Reports, 1947
2 Reynolds Metals Company Annual Reports, 1953
3 Reynolds Metals Company Annual Reports, 1978
4 Reynolds Metals Company Annual Reports, 1981
5 Financial Data, 1985
6 Aluminum's Centennial: Reynolds role 1985
7 Reynolds Review Mar/Apr '56 and July/Aug '61
34 8 Reynolds Review Nov/Dec '61 and Jan/Feb '62
9 Reynolds Review May/June and July/Aug '64
10 Reynolds Review Sept/Oct and Nov/Dec '64
11 Reynolds Review Jan/Feb and Sept/Oct '65
12 Reynolds Review Jan/Feb '69 and July/Aug '78
13 Reynolds Review Winter '80, Spring '82 and Summer '82
14 Reynolds Review Winter '83 and Summer '85
15 Reynolds Review Winter '85 and Spring '86
16 Reynolds Review Summer '86 and Spring '87
17 Reynolds Review Summer '87 and Fall '87
18 Brochure for Reynolds Aluminum Foil
Series 2: HISTORICAL AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION, 1921-1992

Subseries 3: Patent and Legal Information, 1921-1965

7 1 Patents
2 Articles re patents
3 Agreements
4 Agreement for the manufacture, sale, and distribution of Eskimo Pie (labeled new contract)
5 Franchise Agreement
6 Legal information
7 License contract for manufacture, sale, and distribution
8 Petition and license contract
9 Official Gazette of the U.S. Patent Office
Series 2: HISTORICAL AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION, 1921-1992

Subseries 4: Newspaper Clippings and Magazine Articles, 1920-1990

8 1 Newspaper clippings, no dates
2 Newspaper clippings and magazine articles, 1920-1929
3 Newspaper clippings and magazine articles, 1930-1939
4 Newspaper clippings and magazine articles, 1940-1949
5 Newspaper clippings and magazine articles, 1950-1959
6 Newspaper clippings and magazine articles, 1960-1969
7 Newspaper clippings and magazine articles, 1970-1992
8 Cartoons regarding Eskimo Pie
9 Cartoons unrelated to Eskimo Pie
Series 3: MANUFACTURING AND EQUIPMENT, 1922-1969

Subseries 1: Machinery, 1922-1969

9 1 Brochures for Machinery
2 Photographs and Brochure of Machinery
3 Customers under equipment rental agreement
4 Catalogues of machinery and equipment, 1944-1945
5 Photographs and catalogues of equipment, 1946
6 New equipment, 1952
7 Plans for machinery
8 Commercial ice cream plants, 1959
9 Advertisements for refrigerated cases
10 Eskimo-Nelson Machine, July 1952
11 Eskimo-Nelson Machine brochure
10 1 Eskimo Machine
2 Eskimo Machine, 1954
3 Eskimo Machine, February 1957
4 Plans for the Eskimo Machine, May 1959
5 Eskimo Quick Freeze Machine Brochure
6 Eskimo Pie display cabinet, 1959
7 Information re liquid nitrogen freezing
8 Progress technical report on liquid nitrogen freezing, 1953-1954
Series 3: MANUFACTURING AND EQUIPMENT, 1944-1969

Subseries 2: Formulae and Directions, 1942-1963

9 Formulae and directions for Eskimo Stickless Products No. 2083
10 Formulae and directions for Eskimo Stickless Products No. 6165
11 Formulae and directions for Eskimo Stick Products No. 8094
12 Formula and directions for Eskimo Deluxe Fudge Pie (with and without stick)
13 Formula and directions for Eskimo Pie Festive Fancies (Turkey Center)
14 Formula and directions for Eskimo Pie Festive Fancies (Christmas Tree Center)
15 Formula and directions for Eski-Mold
16 Formula and directions for Eskimo School Bar
17 Formula and directions for Eskimo Big Event
18 Formula and directions for Eskimo Cone
Series 4: ESKIMO PIE COMPANY RECORDS, 1951-1995

Subseries 1: Eskimo Pie Annual Reports, 1951-1975

11 1 1951-1954
2 1955-1959
3 1960-1964
4 1965-1969
5 1970-1972
6 1973-1975
7 1976-1979
8 1980-1982
9 1983-1985
10 1986;1987
11 1988;1989
12 1990-1992; 1994
13 1995-1996
Series 4: ESKIMO PIE COMPANY RECORDS, 1951-1995

Subseries 2: Eskimo Pie Newsletters, 1968-1979

12 1 1968
2 1969
3 1970
4 1971
5 1972
6 1973
7 1974
8 1975
9 1976
10 1977
11 1978
12 1979
13 Company newsletters, 1984
Series 5 : PHOTOGRAPHS AND NEGATIVES, 1928-1990

Subseries 1: Photographs, 1928-1990

13A 1 Photographs of technical equipment, 1945
2-4 Photographs of equipment
5 Photographs of packaging
6 Photographs: Color transparencies of packaging
7 Vending booths
13B 1 Photograph of small [refrigerated?] container
2 Vending machines
3 Photographs of refrigerated cases
4 Photographs of refrigerated carts
5-6 Photographs of trucks
7-8 Photographs of trucks
14 1 Photographs of fairs
2 Photographs of trade shows
3 Photographs of store displays
4-5 Photographs of window displays
6 Photograph of National Ice Cream Company with Eskimo Pie sign
7-9 Photographs of outdoor advertising signs
15A 1 Photographs of electric signs
2 Photographs of theatre sales counters
3 Photographs of advertising on automobiles
4-5 Photographs of advertising on buses
6 Sales [personnel] photographs
7 Photographs of personnel
8 Photographs of original store in Onawa, Iowa
9 Photographs of Louis Reynolds
10 Photographs of Fenton Hord (former president)
11 Photographs of men at the South Pole
12 Photographs of Christian Nelson
13 Photographs of 1961 tribute to Christian Nelson
14 Photographs of meeting, New York City, February 18, 1928
15 Photographs of sales meeting, reception/dinner January 23, 1990
15B 1 Photographs of sales meetings
2 Photograph of business dinner
3 Photographs of social event
4 Copies of and correspondence relating to unsolicited photograph
5 Photographs of unidentified people and scenes
6 Photographs with United Airlines, 1934
7 Photographs of package redemption program
8 Photographs of Eskimo Pie premiums
9 Photograph of Eskimo Pie Building, 530 E. Main St. [ Richmond, VA ]
10 Photograph of Eskimo Pie Corporation, Glen Forest and Bayberry
11 Photograph of Oak Farms Building
12 Photographs of unidentified buildings
13 Photographs of plant construction
14 Photographs of non-Eskimo Pie Ice Cream Trucks
15 Photographs of Air Shipping
16 Photographs of Eskimo Pie model set
17 Photograph of people at shopping center
18 Photographs of materials for marketing and sales
19 Photographs of advertising materials
20 Publicity photographs
21 Humorous photograph of Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin
22 Photographs of Miss Eskimo Pie
23 Photographs of Eskimo Boy
24 Color transparencies of Eskimo Boy
25 Photographs of Corky Bimbo, "The Greatest Show on Earth"
26 Photograph of "Sailor Bob," Television
27 Photograph of radio advertising [including Don Ameche]
28 Photograph of newspaper advertising
29 Photograph of conducting a survey
30 Movie promotion photographs and related materials
16 1 Movie promotion photographs and related materials
2 Photograph of grocery carts
3 Photographs of the War program
4 Photograph of product with Wien Alaska Airlines display
5 Product Use with TWA
6 Frontier commercial 1955
7 Photographs for commercial in Alaska, 1988
8 Baby Daphne Promotion, 1967
9 Photographs, slides, and transparencies of Penguin 6 pack
10 Photographs of Eskimo Big Event 6 Pack
11 Photographs of Thin Mints 8 Pack
12 Photographs of Nestle Crunch Ice Cream Bar
13 Photographs of Ice Cream
44 2 Oversize photographs of display cases and portrait
Series 5 : PHOTOGRAPHS AND NEGATIVES, 1928-1990 Subseries 2: Photograph negatives and slides, 1928-1990
17 1 Negatives of Christian Nelson
2 Negatives of unidentified people and places
3 Negatives of advertising materials
4 Negatives of outdoor advertising
5 Negatives for still shots for promotion on 05/15/55
6 Negatives of state of Alaska building at New York World's Fair
7 Negatives of refrigerated carts
8 Negatives of Chicago pushcarts 04/25/51
9 Negatives of refrigerated cases
10 Negatives of store displays
11 Negatives of Trucks
12 Negatives of Machinery
13 Negatives of Nestle Chocolate
14 Slides of Advertising
Series 6: ESKIMO PIE BUSINESS INFORMATION, 1921-1990

Subseries 1: General Business Information, 1922-1990

18 1 Eskimo Pie business information
2 Planned Profit Program
3 Daily statement of cash and licensee's report, 1922
4 Balance sheet, 1923
5 Production records, San Francisco, 1943-1944
6 Eskimo Pie highlights, 1945
7 Wholesale price lists, 1958
8 Printing Plates, 1970
9 50th Anniversary letterhead, 1972
10 Thank-You letters for Eskimo Pie donations
11 Stock information, 1980's
12 Product ranking report, 1989 and 1990
13 UPC number listing, 1989
14 Performance summary Eskimo Pie and key competitors, 1990
40 1 Loose pages from scrapbook of presentation on production, sales, and profits
Series 6: ESKIMO PIE BUSINESS INFORMATION, 1921-1990

Subseries 2: Marketing, 1927-1996

19 1 Marketing reports, 1927
2 Problems and solutions involving "5 cent items', 1942
3 Post-World War II marketing
4 Eskimo Pie product marketing program, 1960-1961
5 Marketing for 1969
6 Marketing information 1970-1980
7 Promotion program, 1972
8 Marketing pictorial, winter 1980
9 Marketing information, 1980-1989
10 Fat-Free Eskimo Pies, 1990
19 11 Marketing, 1990-present
12 75th Anniversary release, 1996
13 Map of the United Sates
14 Foreign markets
15 Promotional materials from movie, "Who's Minding the Mint?"
39 1 Scrapbook titled "Invitation to an Opportunity"
2 Scrapbook titled "Great Eskimo Sales Show", 1957
Series 6: ESKIMO PIE BUSINESS INFORMATION, 1921-1990

Subseries 3: Employee Information and Incentives, 1952-1970

20 1 Incentive awards program, 1970
2 Employee relations
3 Phone directory 1959
4 Personnel lists, 1959-1968
31 1 Prize Salute Campaign, 1952
2 Prize Campaign for Route Salesman, 1953
3-4 Route Driver Salesman Incentive Program, 1956
5 Golden Opportunity Prize Campaign
Series 6: ESKIMO PIE BUSINESS INFORMATION, 1921-1990

Subseries 4: Premiums and Promotions, 1937-1990

21 1 Premiums, ca 1937-1954
2 Promotional programs (talking map)
3 Bicycle promotion
4 Tentative Promotion Program-Eskimo Stick confections, Syracuse Terrace, 1937
5 Alaska 49th State Promotion
6 Notched Stick Promotion, October 1958
7 Essay contest and Boat Promotion, 1962
8-9 Eskimo Pie ragdoll, 1965
10 Hotwheels promotion, 1971, 1973
11 Eskimo Boy Inflatable promotion, 1974
12 Promotion Planner, 1990
30 1 Promotional Brochure for Batman ring promotion
2-3 Promotional brochure for Hot Wheels promotion
47 1 Display for Eskimo Pie ragdoll offer
2 Photograph of ragdoll advertisement picture
3 Letter of ragdoll donation to Mr. Stephen DeWitt
Series 6: ESKIMO PIE BUSINESS INFORMATION, 1921-1990

Subseries 5: Financial Information, 1932-1990

22 1 Royalties and wrapper sales
2 United States Foil Company Royalty Reports, December 1932-December 1933
3 United States Foil Company Royalty Reports, January-December 1934
4 United States Foil Company Royalty Reports, June 1944-December 1944
5 United States Foil Company Royalty Reports, January-December 1945
6 United States Foil Company Royalty Reports, January-December 1946
7 United States Foil Company Royalty Reports, January-December 1947
8 United States Foil Company Royalty Reports, January-December 1948
9 Frozen Products, Inc., Resume of Bank Account, August-December 1944
10 Frozen Products, Inc., Resume of Bank Account, 1945
23 1 Cold Selling Facts, 1924-1925
2 Eskimo Pie Handbook, season 1925-1926
3 Eskimo Price List, 1938
4 Pricing of Advertising, 1949
5 Profit by Class of Profit, 1953
6 Increasing novelty sales, 1953
7 Product sales analysis, 1961
8 Automatic Vending Program, 1966
9 Estimated Costs for Eskimo School Bar and Eskimo Big Event Bar, 1979
10 Sales reports for 1990
11 Eskimo Pie Planned Profit Program
12 Information for Salesmen
13 Selling prices and cost of product
14 Estimated direct cost for Eskimo Festive Fancies (Turkey and Christmas tree center)
15 Sales and Profits
16 The Eskimo Pie Sales Story, 1964
17 The Eskimo Pie Sales Story
Series 6: ESKIMO PIE BUSINESS INFORMATION, 1921-1990

Subseries 6: Packaging, 1921-1954

32 1 Ice cream bars
2 Portions of boxes and wrappers
3-6 Boxes
7 Lids
8 Sticks
9 Early Eskimo Pie wrappers, 1921-1922
10-16 Wrappers
45 2 Oversize packaging
Series 6: ESKIMO PIE BUSINESS INFORMATION, 1921-1990

Subseries 7: General Publications Related to Ice Cream, 1935-1990

33 1 Manuel of Controlled Frozen Stick Confections, 1935
2 Ice Cream Review Advisor, 1939
3 Soda Fountain Training School, 1939
4 The Story of Cacao, 1943
5 California Milk News, 1943
6 The Story of Chocolate, 1960
7 Ice Cream World, 1965, 1968
8 Let's Sell Ice Cream, 1968
9 The Great American Ice Cream Book
10 United Dairy Industry Association 1979 Annual Report
11 Ice Cream Times, 1988
12 Dairy Record, 1990
Series 7: ADVERTISING MATERIALS, 1922-1992

Subseries 1: Print Advertisements, 1922-1989

24 1-3 Printed advertisements
4 Printed advertisements-prices for advertising materials
5 Ad-mats
6 Banners and railstrips for Eskimo Pie products
7 Newspaper slicks
8 Price list for advertising material, 1939
9-10 Advertising posters
11 Advertising shelf strips
12 Advertising decals
13-19 Point of purchase displays
41 1 Scrapbook of Operation Team Up
2 Scrapbook of advertising, sales, and promotion program, 1959
42 1 Scrapbook of machinery, packaging, and advertising
2 Scrapbook of advertisements
43 1-6 Loose pages from scrapbook
44 1 Newspaper advertising portfolio
3 Decals
4 Sketch of mobile ice cream parlor
5 Christmas card sketches, 1989
45 1 Printed advertisements
3-5 Point of purchase displays
48 1 Posters and oversize point of purchase displays
2 Book covers with Eskimo Pie logo
3 Point of purchase display
4-5 Printed advertisements
49 1 1964 Scrapbook of advertisements, newspaper articles, and promotions
2 1965 Scrapbook of advertisements, newspaper articles, and promotions
25 1 Advertising campaign, 1956
2 Advertising index for P-O-P
3 Advertising program, 1960
4 Press releases
Series 7: ADVERTISING MATERIALS, 1922-1992

Subseries 2: Radio Advertisements, 1930-1985

5 Radio announcements
6 Jim Ameche sales jingle
7 Radio plan for chocolate fudge twin mints and cherry and vanilla ice milk, 1967
8 Eskimo Pie advertising song
46 3 Eskimo Pie "On the Air"
Series 7: ADVERTISING MATERIALS, 1922-1992

Subseries 3: Television Advertisements, 1948-1992

25 9 Advertising aids for television
10 Advertising campaign for Borden, 1948-1951
11 Reports of televison broadcasts without coordinated still photographs
12 Television story boards, advertisements, etc.
13 Network television participators, 1962
14 Television advertising, schedules for Florida markets, September 8, 1969
15 70th Anniversary Advertising Ideas, 1992
Series 7: ADVERTISING MATERIALS, 1922-1992

Subseries 4: Promotional Brochures, 1951-1964

26 1 Butter brickle, 1963
2 Chocolate malted
3-4 Chocolate marshmallow
5 Christmas trees
6 Christmas trees, festive fancies turkey center, July 1963
7 Christmas trees, festive fancies turkey center, August 1963
8 Christmas trees, October 1964
27 1 Diet bar, 1966
2 Do-nuts, 1963
3-4 Do-nuts
5 Easter Bunnies, 1963
6 Easter Bunnies, December 1963
7 Eclair, July 1963
8 Eskimo Pie, May 1951
9 Eskimo Pie, May 1963: 1996
10 Eskimo Pie Junior, January 1963
28 1 Eskimo Pie Junior, January 1963
2 Eski-Molds, November 1963
3 Eski-Molds, 1965
4 Eskimoo Product
5-6 Four-pack flavor, November 1963
29 1 Mod-pop
2 Nutty Fudge Bars
3 Orange Bar
29 4 Pumpkins, July 1964
5 Stickless products
6 Thin Mints, May 1963
7 Thin Mints, August 1963
8 Toasted Almond
Series 8: MISCELLANEOUS, 1921-1979
35 1 Miscellaneous
2-3 Items with Eskimo Pie logo

Maurita Baldock, 1998
revised: Jennifer Snyder, January 2002

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E-mail: archivescenter@si.edu
Revised: January 31, 2007