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JOSEPH B. FRIEDMAN PAPERS, 1915 - 2000
#
769

(8 cubic feet: 13.5 DB, 1 (.5) Flt B, 1 Flt B, 1 F/O, 2 O/S Fldr)

by: Marianne Riley, August  2001

Biography

Joseph B. Friedman (1900 - 1982) was an independent American inventor with a broad range of interests and ideas. Born in Cleveland, Ohio on October 9, 1900, Joseph was a first generation American and the fifth of eight children for Jacob Friedman and Antoinette Grauer Friedman. By the age of fourteen, he had conceptualized his first invention, the "pencilite" lighted pencil, and was attempting to market his idea. Over the course of his inventing career, he would experiment with ideas ranging from writing implements to engine improvements, and household products to sound and optic experiments. He was issued nine U.S. patents and held patents in Great Britain, Australia and Canada. His first patent was issued for improvements to the fountain pen on April 18, 1922, (U.S. patent #1,412,930). This was also the first invention that he successfully sold, to Sheaffer Pen Company in the mid 1930s. In the 1920s, Friedman began his education in real estate and optometry. He would use both of these careers at different points in his life to supplement his income while improving his invention concepts. Although he was working as a realtor in San Francisco, California, the 1930s proved to be his most prolific patenting period, with six of his nine U.S. patents being issued then. One of these patents would prove to be his most successful invention - the flexible drinking straw.

While sitting in his younger brother Albert's fountain parlor, the Varsity Sweet Shop in San Francisco, Friedman observed his young daughter Judith at the counter, struggling to drink out of a straight straw. He took a paper straight straw, inserted a screw and using dental floss, he wrapped the paper into the screw threads, creating corrugations. After removing the screw, the altered paper straw would bend conveniently over the edge of the glass, allowing small children to better reach their beverages. U.S. patent #2,094,268 was issued for this new invention under the title Drinking Tube, on September 28, 1937. Friedman would later file and be issued two additional U.S. patents and three foreign patents in the 1950s relating to its formation and construction. Friedman attempted to sell his straw patent to several existing straw manufacturers beginning in 1937 without success, so after completing his straw machine, he began to produce the straw himself.

The Flexible Straw Corporation was incorporated on April 24, 1939 in California. However, World War II interrupted Friedman's efforts to construct his straw manufacturing machine. During the war, he managed the optometry practice of Arthur Euler, O.D., in Capwells' Department Store in Oakland, California, and continued to sell real estate and insurance to support his growing family. Joseph obtained financial backing for his flexible straw machine from two of his brothers-in-law, Harry Zavin and David Light, as well as from Bert Klein, a family associate. With their financial assistance, and the business advice of his sister Betty, Friedman completed the first flexible straw manufacturing machine in the late 1940s. Although his original concept had come from the observation of his daughter, the flexible straw was initially marketed to hospitals, with the first sale made in 1947.

Betty Friedman played a crucial role in the development of the Flexible Straw Corporation. While still living in Cleveland and working at the Tarbonis Company, she corresponded regularly with her brother and directed all of the sales and distribution of the straw. In 1950 Friedman moved his family and company to Santa Monica, California. Now doing business as the Flex-Straw Co., sales continued to increase and the marketing direction expanded to focus more strongly on the home and child markets. Betty moved west in 1954 to assume her formal leadership role in the corporation. Additional partners and investors were added over time, including Art Shapiro, who was initially solicited as a potential buyer of the patent. On June 20, 1969, the Flexible Straw Corporation sold its United States and foreign patents, United States and Canadian trademarks, and licensing agreements to the Maryland Cup Corporation. The Flexible Straw Corporation dissolved on August 19, 1969.

Dr. Joseph Bernard Friedman died on June 21, 1982. He was survived by his wife of over 50 years, Marjorie Lewis Friedman, his four children Judith, Linda, Pamela and Robert, and seven grandchildren.

Scope and Content

The Joseph B. Friedman Papers encompass the years 1915-2000, with the bulk of the material ranging between 1925 and 1965. This collection is a near complete source for the understanding inventive process of an American entrepreneur. In the case of the flexible straw, the evolution of the invention can be traced from early concept drawings through its manufacture and production, to the development of advertising and marketing materials. Records of necessary design modifications in the flexible straw and legal issues concerning Friedman's invention through its various stages are present here. In addition to providing a detailed linear account of the flexible straw, these papers reflect the varied interests and additional accomplishments of Friedman's invention career. The collection is arranged in three series to reflect the subjects of the material, namely personal papers, invention materials, and corporate records. Materials within each series are arranged by topic and type, and then chronologically.

Series 1: PERSONAL RECORDS, ca.1920s-1940 contains family photographs, personal correspondence, education and employment records. Friedman's education records are in Subseries A, while the records of his careers in optometry, insurance and real estate are contained in Subseries B. Subseries C contains personal financial records, including bank statements and income tax returns. Correspondence, photographs, family history items and death certificate are located in Subseries D.

Series 2: INVENTION & PATENT MATERIALS, 1915-1967 consists of invention records that include original concept drawings, legal records and patents, marketing correspondence, and the business records of Friedman's sole proprietorship invention business, the Commercial Research Company. It is important for researchers to note that information on the assignment of straw patents and their machinery, all associated legal records to those specific issues, as well as patent defense case research, and straw advertising and marketing after 1938 may be found in Series 3. Series 2 is divided into several subseries. Subseries A - I are patented inventions arranged chronologically by patent issue date, and include research and development, legal records and correspondence, and advertising and marketing materials. Subseries J - M contain unpatented inventions and business records, as well as multiple concept drawings and invention lists that refer to both patented and unpatented inventions. Researchers interested in the conceptual development of the straw should review the information contained not only in Subseries E: Drinking Tube and Subseries H: Flexible Straw, but also in Subseries L: Invention Lists & Drawings for straw ideas that were drawn on lists or sketches with other concepts. Additionally, researchers interested in the manufacturing device for the straw should review Subseries I: Apparatus & Method for Forming Corrugations in Tubing, as well as Subseries K: Unpatented Inventions, for the Flexible Straw & Method of Forming Same information.

Series 3: FLEX-STRAW CORPORATE RECORDS, 1938 - 1967 includes correspondence relating to the company and its formation, financial statements, tax returns, legal documents, patent assignments, royalty information, patent defense case research and records, and documents pertaining to the advertising and marketing of the flexible straw. Researchers should note that all conceptual and developmental details relating to the straw and its manufacture, as well as the original patents and their specifically associated legal correspondence can be found in Series 2. Series 3 is divided into several topically arranged subseries. Subseries A consists of the organizational materials for the company, including the minutes, by-laws and limited employee records. This subseries also contains two day books belonging to Joseph B. Friedman recording his appointments and personal notes from 1947 and 1950. Subseries B includes company related correspondence, organized by the correspondent. It begins with general correspondence, from 1939 - 1963, and continues with the letters of Bert Klein (1945 - 1950), David Light & Harry Zavin (1938 - 1962), and Betty Friedman (1940 - 1954). Much of the operational information on the company may be found in the letters Betty Friedman wrote and received from her brother. Subseries C holds the financial records of the company, including financial statements, ledgers, bank statements, check books, tax returns and royalty statements. Subseries D consists of legal records and correspondence, including such topics as changes in entity type, patent assignments, fair trade agreements and patent defense. Subseries E contains the advertising and marketing records of the company. This includes published material relating to the Flex-Straw specifically, as well as some advertising for flexible straws in general. Pencil concept drawings of Flex-Straw packaging and advertising art are drawn on the reverse of Pette calender pages, and international advertising materials for the product are also present. Product testimonials, distributor bulletins, and corporate letterhead that traces the progression of company locations can also be found here.

Related Materials

Straw samples and an original dispensing device (ice cream disher) are located in the Division of Music, Sports and Entertainment, National Museum of American History.

A mandrel prototype from the original flexible straw manufacturing machine is held by the Division of Work and Industry, National Museum of American History.

Provenance

Daughters Judith B. Rosen, Linda A. Reiss and Pamela B. Leeds, and son Robert A. Friedman donated this collection and its related artifacts to the Archives Center of the National Museum of American History on May 1, 2001.

Container List

Box Folder
Series 1: PERSONAL RECORDS, ca. 1920 - 1983
Subseries A: Education, c. 1920s - 1940
1 1 General Education Records & Correspondence, c. 1920s, n.d.
2 Education, Algebra, 1937
3 Real Estate Education, c. 1920s
4 Optometry Education, 1940
Subseries B: Employment & Business Records, 1920 - 1978
5 Optometry General Records, Correspondence & Photographs, 1920-1982
6 Arthur E. Euler, Optometry Practice Records & Correspondence, 1942-1944
7 Real Estate & Insurance Licenses, 1939 - 1978
8 Real Estate & Insurance Business Records & Correspondence, 1928 - 1950
9 Real Estate & Insurance Business Records, n.d.
O/S-17 1 Real Estate & Insurance Business Records, n.d.
1 10 Real Estate & Insurance, Blank Forms, c. 1930s - 1940s
11 Other Employment Correspondence, 1943
Subseries C: Financial Records, 1928 - 1978
12 Residential Legal & Insurance Records, Correspondence, 1928 - 1955
2 1 Automobile Records & Health Insurance, 1936 - 1964
2 Tax Returns & Records, 1940, 1943, 1947
3 Tax Return, 1964
4 Tax Return & Records, 1965
5 Tax Records, 1969
6 General Receipts, 1934 - 1956, n.d.
O/S-15 1 Banking Records, April - Aug., 1936
2 Banking Records, Sept., 1936 - March, 1937
Subseries C: Financial Records, 1928 - 1978
3 Banking Records, April - June, 1937
4 Banking Records, Aug., 1937 - Jan., 1938
5 Banking Records, May - Nov., 1946
6 Banking Records, Feb. - Aug., 1948
7 Banking Records, Sept., 1948 - Jan., 1949
8 Banking Records, Misc. Checks, Bank Books, 1946, 1948-1950, 1954-1978
Subseries D: Family Records, 1923 - 1983
2 7 Correspondence, 1923 - 1954
8 Correspondence, n.d.
9 Family Photographs, 1924, 1944 - 1979, n.d.
10 Blank Travel Postcards, 1968, n.d.
11 Recreation, 1941 - 1958, n.d.
12 Family History, 1938 - 1951, n.d.
13 Medical Notes & Articles, 1950 - 1983, n.d.
14 Death Certificate, Autopsy Report, 1982
Series 2: INVENTION & PATENT MATERIALS, 1915 - 1967
Subseries A: Fountain Pen, 1924 - 1954
3 1 Fountain Pen, Research & Development, 1924 - 1954
2 Fountain Pen, Legal Records & Correspondence, 1924 - 1938
O/S-16 1 Fountain Pen, Legal Records, n.d.
3 3 Fountain Pen, Advertising & Marketing, 1925 - 1936
O/S Fldr 2 Fountain Pen, Advertising & Marketing, 1935
O/S-16 2 Fountain Pen, Advertising & Marketing, 1936 - 1937
Subseries B: Safety-Razor Handle, 1927 - 1959
3 4 Safety-Razor Handle, Research & Development, 1927 - 1959
5 Safety-Razor Handle, Legal Records, 1927 - 1930
6 Safety-Razor Handle, Advertising & Marketing, 1936
Subseries C: Dispensing Device, 1930 - 1936
7 Dispensing Device, Research & Development, 1930 - 1936
8 Dispensing Device, Legal Records & Correspondence, 1930 - 1935
9 Dispensing Device, Advertising & Marketing, 1933
Subseries D: Folding Screen, 1933 - 1938
10 Folding Screen, Research & Development, 1933 - 1935
11 Folding Screen, Legal Records & Correspondence, 1935 - 1936
12 Folding Screen, Advertising & Marketing, 1935 - 1938
Subseries E: Drinking Tube, 1936 - 1946
13 Drinking Tube, Research & Development, 1937, n.d.
14 Drinking Tube, Legal Records & Correspondence, 1936 - 1946
15 Drinking Tube, Advertising & Marketing, 1937 - 1938
Subseries F: Gas Range, 1936 - 1940
16 Gas Range, Research & Development, 1938 - 1940, n.d.
17 Gas Range, Legal Records & Correspondence, 1936 - 1938
18 Gas Range, Advertising & Marketing, 1938 - 1940
Subseries G: Confection, 1936 - 1940
19 Confection, Research & Development, n.d.
20 Confection, Legal Records & Correspondence, 1936 - 1938, n.d.
O/S-16 3 Confection, Legal Records, n.d.
O/S Fldr 2 Confection, Advertising & Marketing, n.d.
3 21 Confection, Advertising & Marketing, 1936 - 1940, n.d.
Subseries H: Flexible Drinking Straw, 1938 - 1955
4 1 Flexible Straw, Research & Development, 1938 - 1951, n.d.
O/S-17 2 Flexible Straw, Research & Development, 1947
4 2 Flexible Straw, Legal Records & Correspondence, 1948 - 1955
Subseries I: Apparatus & Method for Forming Corrugations in Tubing, 1930s - 1950s
3 Apparatus & Method, Research & Development Correspondence, 1937-1938
4 Apparatus & Method, Research & Development Drafting & Blueprints, 1939
O/S-17 3 Apparatus & Method, Research & Development Drafting & Blueprints, 1948
O/S Fldr 1 Apparatus & Method, Research & Development Drafting & Blueprints, 1938-1940, 1950 - 1956, n.d.
4 5 Apparatus & Method, Research & Development Photographs, c.1930s-1940s
6 Apparatus & Method, Research & Development Drawings & Published Material, c. 1930s - 1950s
7 Apparatus & Method, Legal Records & Correspondence, 1940 - 1953
Subseries J: Unissued Patent Applications, 1937, 1959 - 1962
8 Adjustable Closure, 1937
9 Combined Fluid Receptacle and Straw for Use Therewith, 1959 - 1962
Subseries K: Unpatented Inventions, 1915 - 1967
10 Pencilite, 1915 - 1920
O/S-17 4 Box Camera, 1921
4 11 Continuous & Stereoscopic Projection, Research & Development, 1925-1964
12 Stereoscopic Projection, Legal Records, 1926
13 Continuous Motion Projection, Legal Records & Correspondence, 1934-1937
14 Round Towel, 1935 - 1938
15 Vacuum Flask, 1940
O/S-16 4 Reflector License Plate, 1941
O/S Fldr 2 Photophonic/Sound, Research & Development, 1943
4 16 Photophonic/Sound, Research & Development, 1943
17 Photophonic/Sound, Legal Records, 1943 - 1956
18 Photophonic/Sound, Advertising & Marketing, 1943
5 1 Container and Drinking Straw Therefor, 1950
2 Disposable Dispenser, 1956
3 Flexible Straw & Method of Forming Same, Research & Development, 1963-1967
O/S Fldr 2 Flexible Straw & Method of Forming Same, Research & Development, 1967
4 Flexible Straw & Method of Forming Same, Legal Records & Correspondence, 1966 - 1967
Subseries L: Invention Lists & Drawings, 1921 - 1958 (includes both patented and unpatented concepts)
5 Invention Lists, 1921 - 1945
O/S Fldr 2 Invention Lists, 1939
O/S-16 5 Individual Concept Invention Drawings, 1927, 1956
5 6 Individual Concept Invention Drawings, 1924 - 1962, n.d.
2 15 Multiple Concept Invention Video Cassette, "Flex-Straw Machine - prototype - c.1946; 3-D Movie Experiments - 1929 (With Albert & Joseph Friedman)" OV 769.1 (RV 769.1 available) TRT 7:20sec
O/S-16 6 Multiple Concept Invention Drawings, 1932 - 1943, n.d.
5 7 Multiple Concept Invention Drawings, 1924 - 1958, n.d.
8 Unidentified Invention Drawings, 1926 - 1955
9 Unidentified Invention Drawings, n.d.
Subseries M: Commercial Research Company, 1930s - 1960s
10 General Correspondence, 1936 - 1956, n.d.
11 Company Identity, (Letterhead) c. 1930s - 1940s
12 Published Material & General Invention Research, 1924 - 1958, n.d.
O/S-17 5 Published Material & General Invention Research, 1949, n.d.
6 1 General Invention Receipts, 1949, n.d.
2 Address & Phone Number Notes, c. 1930s - 1940s
3 Business Cards, c. 1920s - 1960s
  Series 3: FLEX-STRAW CORPORATE RECORDS, 1938 - 1970
Subseries A: Organizational Materials, 1938 - 1967
7 1 Corporation Record Book (Binder) n.d.
2 Corporation Record Book, Notes on its Creation, n.d.
3 Corporation Record Book, Articles [of Incorporation, Permit to Sell Securities] 1939 - 1940
4 Corporation Record Book, By - Laws [& Share Transfers] 1951, n.d.
5 Corporation Record Book, Minutes, 1939 - 1969
6 Customer & Distributor Lists & Addresses, Shipping Records, c.1947-1948
7 Dun & Bradstreet Reports, Customers & Competitors, 1938 - 1967
8 General Receipts, Invoices, 1945, 1947 - 1951
9 Personnel Records, 1943, 1948 - 1953
10 Plant Security Recommendations, Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, 1951
11 "To Do" Notes, Joseph B. Friedman & Betty Friedman, n.d.
12 Calender/Date Book, Joseph B. Friedman, 1947, 1950
14 9 Corporate Seal, c. 1939
O/S-16 7 Corporate Stock Certificates, 1949 - 1952, n.d.
Subseries B: Correspondence, 1939 - 1963
8 1 Correspondence, General, 1939 - 1940
2 Correspondence, General, 1941
3 Correspondence, General, 1943 - 1944
4 Correspondence, General, 1945 - 1946
5 Correspondence, General, 1947
6 Correspondence, General, 1948
7 Correspondence, General, 1949
8 Correspondence, General, 1950
9 Correspondence, General, 1951 - 1955
10 Correspondence, General, 1956 - 1958
11 Correspondence, General, 1960 - 1963
12 Correspondence, General, n.d.
13 Correspondence, Bert Klein, 1945
14 Correspondence, Bert Klein, 1946
15 Correspondence, Bert Klein, 1947
16 Correspondence, Bert Klein, 1948
17 Correspondence, Bert Klein, 1949 - 1950
18 Correspondence, David Light & Harry Zavin, 1938
19 Correspondence, David Light & Harry Zavin, 1939
20 Correspondence, David Light & Harry Zavin, 1940
21 Correspondence, David Light & Harry Zavin, 1941, 1945, 1948 - 1949
22 Correspondence, David Light & Rose Zavin, 1954, 1956 - 1957, 1962
9 1 Correspondence, Betty Friedman, 1940
2 Correspondence, Betty Friedman, 1944
3 Correspondence, Betty Friedman, 1945
4 Correspondence, Betty Friedman, 1946
5 Correspondence, Betty Friedman, 1947
6 Correspondence, Betty Friedman, Jan. - June, 1948
7 Correspondence, Betty Friedman, July - Dec., 1948
8 Correspondence, Betty Friedman, Jan. - March, 1949
9 Correspondence, Betty Friedman, April - June, 1949
10 Correspondence, Betty Friedman, July - Sept., 1949
11 Correspondence, Betty Friedman, Oct. - Dec., 1949
12 Correspondence, Betty Friedman, Jan. - April, 1950
13 Correspondence, Betty Friedman, July - Dec., 1950
14 Correspondence, Betty Friedman, 1951 - 1952
Subseries B: Correspondence, 1939 - 1963
15 Correspondence, Betty Friedman, 1953 - 1954
16 Correspondence, Betty Friedman, n.d.
Subseries C: Financial Records, 1943 - 1969
10 1 Financial, Cash Ledgers, 1943 - 1944, 1947 - 1951
2 Financial Statements, 1945
3 Financial Statements, 1946
4 Financial Statements, 1950
5 Financial Statements, 1951
O/S-17 6 Financial, Comparative Sales Spreadsheet, 1948 - 1951
10 6 Financial Statements, 1952
7 Financial Statements, 1953
8 Financial Statements, Jan - March, 1954
9 Financial Statements, April - June, 1954
10 Financial Statements, July - Sept., 1954
11 Financial Statements, Oct. - Dec., 1954
12 Financial Report, Jan., 1955 (Includes Comparative Financials 1948-1954)
13 Financial Statements, Jan - March, 1955
14 Financial Statements, April - June, 1955
15 Financial Statements, July - Sept., 1955
16 Financial Statements, Oct. - Dec., 1955
17 Financial Statements, Jan. - June, 1956
18 Financial Statements, July - Dec., 1956
19 Financial Statements, 1957
20 Financial Statements, 1958
21 Financial Statements, Jan. - June, 1959
22 Financial Statements, July - Dec., 1959
23 Financial Statements, 1960
11 1 Financial Statements, 1961
2 Financial Statements, 1962
3 Financial Statements, 1963
4 Financial Statements, 1964
5 Financial Statements, 1965
6 Financial Statements, 1966
7 Financial Statements, 1967
O/S-16 8 Financial Statements, 1968
11 8 Check Book, March, 1955 - May, 1965
9 Check Book, May, 1965 - Aug., 1970
10 Bank Statements, Aug., 1952 - March, 1954
11 Bank Statements, Feb., 1955 - Feb., 1956
12 Bank Statements, Dec., 1961 - Nov., 1962
13 Bank Statements, 1968, Bank Book, 1951 - 1969
14 Tax Returns & Correspondence, 1939
15 Tax Returns & Correspondence, 1940
16 Tax Returns, 1941
17 Tax Statements & Correspondence, 1942
18 Tax Returns, Records & Correspondence, 1952
19 Tax Returns, 1953
20 Tax Returns, 1954
21 Tax Returns & Records, 1955
22 Tax Returns & Correspondence, 1956
23 Tax Returns & Correspondence, 1958
Subseries C: Financial Records, 1943 - 1969
24 Tax Returns & Correspondence, 1959
12 1 Tax Returns & Correspondence, 1960
2 Tax Returns, 1961
3 Tax Returns, 1962
4 Tax Returns & Correspondence, 1963
5 Tax Returns, 1964
6 Tax Returns & Correspondence, 1965
7 Tax Returns, 1966
8 Estimated Tax Records, 1967
9 Tax Returns, 1968
10 Tax Returns & Records, 1969
11 Stockholder Distributions & Allocations, 1947 - 1957
12 Royalties, 1950, 1959 - 1962
13 Royalties, 1963 - 1969
Subseries D: Legal Records, 1938 - 1969
14 Legal, General Records & Correspondence, 1938
15 Legal, General Records & Correspondence, 1939
16 Legal, General Records & Correspondence, 1940
17 Legal, General Records & Correspondence, 1941
18 Legal, General Records & Correspondence, 1947 - 1948
19 Legal, General Records & Correspondence, 1949 - 1951
20 Legal, General Records & Correspondence, 1952
21 Legal, General Records & Correspondence, 1953
22 Legal, General Records & Correspondence, 1954
13 1 Legal, General Records & Correspondence, 1955
2 Legal, General Records & Correspondence, 1956
3 Legal, General Records & Correspondence, 1957
4 Legal, General Records & Correspondence, 1958
5 Legal, General Records & Correspondence, 1959
6 Legal, General Records & Correspondence, 1967
7 Legal, General Records & Correspondence, 1969
8 Legal, General Records & Correspondence, n.d.
9 Legal, Fair-trade Agreement, 1949 - 1953
10 Legal, Trademark, 1954 - 1955
11 Legal, Patent Defense, Research - Competitor's Patents
12 Legal, Patent Defense, Records & Correspondence, 1947 - 1967
Subseries E: Advertising & Marketing, 1938 - 2000
13 Advertising & Marketing, Press & Print Mentions, c. 1950s - 1983
O/S-17 7 Advertising & Marketing, Press & Print Mentions, 1938 - 1960
8 Advertising & Marketing, Hospital Ads, n.d.
13 14 Advertising & Marketing, Hospital Ads, c. 1950s - 1960s
15 Advertising & Marketing, General Consumer Ads, c. 1950s - 1960s
16 Advertising & Marketing, Television Sponsorships, c. 1950s
17 Advertising & Marketing, International Ads & Literature, c. 1950s - 1960s
14 1 Advertising & Marketing, Ad & Display Photographs c. 1950s - 1960s
2 Advertising & Marketing, Distributor Bulletins, 1947 - 1968
3 Advertising & Marketing, "The Flex Angle" Newsletter, Vol. I, #1-4, 1961
4 Advertising & Marketing, General, Non Flex-Straw Print Ads, c.1950-2000
O/S Fldr 2 Advertising & Marketing, General, Non Flex-Straw Print Ad, 1940
O/S-16 9 Advertising & Marketing, General, Non Flex-Straw Print Ads, 1941 - 1991
14 5 Advertising & Marketing, Testimonials, 1949 - Jan., 1962
6 Advertising & Marketing, Testimonials, Reader's Digest, April, 1962
7 Advertising & Marketing, Testimonials, March - July, 1962
8 Advertising & Marketing, Corporate Identity (Letterhead) c. 1940s - 1960s
O/S-16 10 Advertising & Marketing, Corporate Identity (Letterhead) n.d.
O/S-17 9 Advertising & Marketing, Ad & Package Design Sketches, n.d.

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Revised: September 17, 2009