This dress is part of the trousseau of Henrietta Schulken Fillyaw. Her parents were born in Germany, where they married before immigrating to the United States. Henrietta was born (1848) in North Carolina, but Census records show that the family moved around; Henrietta's older sister was born in South Carolina and younger siblings were born in Illinois before the family returned to North Carolina. Mr. Schulken was a retail grocer. The family was prosperous. The 1860 Census shows that they owned two female slaves, who probably worked as domestic servants; after the Civil War they employed an African American woman as a domestic servant. In 1875 Henrietta married Oscar Fillyaw, the son of a local distiller and merchant. After their marriage, they lived for several years with Henrietta's parents. Later Oscar engaged in farming; they had two daughters, one of whom was the donor. The dress was probably made by a dressmaker. Exhibited in the Hall of American Costume from 1964 to 1974.