Games Learning Resources Visit the Museum
America on the Move
Collection Exhibition Themes
Bracero worker holding a hoe

Enlarge Image
Bracero worker holding a hoe
Photograph by Leonard Nadel, NMAH, History of Technology Collections, Photo by Leonard Nadel


This object appears in the following sections:

Immigration and Migration
A Nation of Immigrants: Latino Stories — Opportunity or Exploitation: The Bracero Program

Bracero workers

Bracero worker holding a hoe
In collection
From the Smithsonian Collection

The photograph shows a bracero worker posing for the picture, holding a hoe on a lettuce field.

The photographer, Leonard Nadel, wrote the following quote in a caption:

"'We have no names. We are called only by numbers.' Since the beginning of the program in 1942, over a million nameless Mexican farm laborers have been imported into the United States as temporary agricultural workers under and (sic) agreement between the United States and Mexico. These workers-braceros-also known as "drybacks" to distinguish them from the illegal 'wetbacks.' By 1955, more than 400,000 braceros were passing through the United States annually."

Physical Description
Date Made:
Pacific, West South Central

In 1956, Leonard Nadel was hired by the Fund for the Republic, an anti-McCarthy liberal spin off of the Ford Foundation, to document the Bracero Program. In the 1990s, the Smithsonian Institution acquired the Nadel images. The collection contains 64 captioned photographic prints and 1730 original 35mm negatives (with corresponding contact sheets). The images document life in Mexico, mens' experiences of crossing the border, and work and life in the US.

The Bracero Program came into existence in 1942. Growers argued that labor shortages in the United States resulting from World War II required the recruitment of Mexican nationals. Mexico saw the program as a contribution to the war effort. Although the program began as a temporary war measure, it became a fixture of agricultural work landscape until it was finally terminated in 1964.

Over the course of its lifetime, the Bracero Program became the largest and most significant U.S. labor guest worker program of the 20th century. In all, over 4.5 million contracts were awarded through the 22 years of the program. Despite the well-intentioned contracts, the program did not escape controversy. Some point out the widespread abuses of many of the contracts protective provisions and the violation of the legal rights and civil liberties of the braceros while others describe the program as an opportunity for Mexican nationals to make a living and improve the conditions of their families. Regardless of one's opinion of the program, it had a profound effect on Mexican American settlement patterns in the U.S. and numerous Latino families have ancestors who were involved in the Bracero Program.

National Museum of American History About This Site | Sponsors | Buy the Book | E-mail Signup | Credits