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BROWNIE WISE PAPERS, ca. 1928-1968

15 cu. ft.: 26 DB, 7 F/O, 27 sound recordings

by: Mimi Minnick, July 1995

Biographical Note

Brownie Humphrey was born in Buford, Georgia in 1913, the daughter of Rosabelle Stroud Humphrey and Jerome Humphrey, a plumber. According to longtime friend Kay Robinson, Brownie knew that there were few business opportunities for women in the South, and that "unless she wanted to work in sales, she would have to leave the South." After meeting Robert Wise at the Texas Centennial in 1936, where the couple saw an exhibition highlighting a bright future at Ford Motors, Brownie and Robert married and moved to the Detroit area where he worked as a machinist, later opening a small machine shop. The couple divorced in 1941, about three years after the birth of their only child, Jerry. Brownie Wise never remarried.

During the late 1930s and early 1940s, Brownie contributed to a correspondence column of the Detroit News under the pen name "Hibiscus." Her columns were largely autobiographical, but used elements of fantasy and romance to address a uniquely female urban community. In Detroit, Wise worked briefly at an ad agency and in a millinery shop. During World War II, Wise got a job as an executive secretary at Bendix. After the war, Brownie and her mother, Rose Stroud Humphrey, began selling Stanley Home Products. When Jerry became ill in 1949, they followed a doctor's advice and moved to Miami where they began a direct selling business they called Patio Parties. Through this business, the mother daughter team distributed Poly-T (Tupperware), Stanley Home Products, West Bend, and other household goods through an innovative home party plan adopted by Brownie.

Thomas Damigella in Massachusetts, and Brownie Wise in South Florida, quickly became among the fastest movers of Tupperware products, attracting the attention of Earl Tupper, who was still searching for a profitable outlet for his plastic containers. Because Americans were still skeptical of plastics and because the Tupper seal required demonstration, early attempts at department store sales had been unsuccessful. Some independent dealers had more success selling through demonstrations at state fairs or door-to-door, but sales and distribution remained low. The experiences of Damigella and Wise convinced Tupper to offer the products on a home party plan. He partnered with Norman Squires, the originator of Hostess Home Parties, to pursue this strategy.

In 1951, Tupper recruited Brownie to develop the Hostess party plan for Tupperware, and named her vice president of the company. She is credited with developing the party plan and sales organization, and with creating the annual Jubilee, a pep-rally and awards ceremony for dealers and distributors; it was her idea to locate company headquarters in Kissimmee, and she oversaw the design and construction of the campus. With the company's meteoric success came national recognition. Her public role was all the greater because Earl Tupper shunned all public exposure; Wise was the public head of the company throughout the 1950s. She was both honored guest and invited speaker at national sales and marketing conferences, where she was often the only woman in attendance. Scores of laudatory articles about her appeared in the sales industry and general business press, and she became the darling of the women's magazines, including features in McCalls, Charm and Companion.

Tupper and Wise clashed over the management and direction of the business in late 1957 and the board of directors forced her out in January, 1958. She filed a $1,600,000 suit against the company for conspiracy and breach of contract, but settled out of court for a year's salary -- about $30,000. Shortly thereafter, Tupper sold the company to Dart/Rexall and relinquished all involvement with it.

Beginning in 1958 and through the 1960s, Brownie co-founded three direct sales cosmetics companies, Cinderella (1958-59), Carissa (1963) and Sovera/Trivera (1966-69). She also was president of Viviane Woodard Cosmetics (1960-62), and consulted for Artex and others. In addition, she undertook a real estate development venture in Kissimmee with Charles McBurney and George Reynolds (both former Tupperware executives). She seems never to have achieved the same level of success in these later business ventures. Wise continued to live in the Kissimmee area, moving from Waters' Edge, the spectacular 1920s mansion she occupied during the Tupperware years, to a home George Reynolds designed for her in. She was active in her church and as an artist, working in clay and textiles. During the last eight years of her life she was in declining health. She died in December 1992.

Scope and Content Note

The Brownie Wise Papers constitute an essential complement to the Earl Tupper Papers, acquired in 1992, and to the museums rich collections of Tupperware products. Together these collections document not only the founding and early business history of Tupperware, but also significant areas of American history in which the museum has a demonstrated interest. The Brownie Wise Papers illuminate aspects of an American consumer culture which achieved its apex in the post-World War II years; in many ways, Tupperware and the Tupperware party reflect the key defining elements of the fifties. Of special significance is the story these papers tell of a successful woman business executive and working mother, in an era whose women have more often been characterized by June Cleaver and Harriet Nelson. The Tupperware story offers rich insights into the society and culture of the era, illuminating issues of gender, consumerism, and technological development.

There are approximately 15 cubic feet of materials, including photographic and audiovisual materials. The collection is organized into three series.

Series 1: PERSONAL PAPERS, ca. 1928-1968. A scrapbook touches on her life as a girl in the 1920s. Souvenir photographs of the 1936 Texas Centennial Exhibition at which she met her future husband, letterhead of his Detroit business, travel postcards, war ration books, income tax returns and a scrapbook chronicling her writings under the penname Hibiscus for the Detroit News, give a glimpse into her life during the late 1930s and early 1940s. For the 1950s, there are records of taxes and household expenses. The collection also includes some of her 1940s and 1950s dress patterns; as a woman in the public eye, Wise's trim figure and fashionable attire were much discussed.

Series 2: STANLEY HOME PRODUCTS, PATIO PARTIES, POLY-T PARTIES, HIBISCUS SALES AND GARDENIA SALES, ca. 1947-1959. This series includes records of Wise's innovative direct sales businesses for the period before she was recruited by Tupperware. Files include order forms, correspondence with sales agents, and instructions on sales methods. There are sales records, invoices, shipping documents, accounting records and sales force newsletters from the Miami Tupperware dealership known as Hibiscus Sales, which Wise opened in 1949 with her mother. Until her death in 1959, Brownie's mother Rose Humphrey, continued to operate the Miami dealership as well as Gardenia Sales, which supplied Tupperware to Puerto Rico. There are accounting records and dealer correspondence documenting this enterprise.

Series 3: TUPPERWARE HOME PARTIES, ca. 1951-1959. This series includes files of Wise's business correspondence, notes and memoranda, and speeches. There is some business correspondence with Earl Tupper, who remained at the firm's manufacturing plants in the Northeast. Also included are publicity reprints and newsclippings, as well as public relations scrapbooks from 1951 to 1958. There are nearly complete runs of Tupperware Sparks and the Tupperware Sentinel, company publications prepared for the sales force, as well as catalogs, recruitment publications and other company literature.  The series is divided into six subseries as follows:

  • Subseries A: Business Files and Correspondence, 1951-1959;  1988-1989

  • Subseries B: Speeches to Tupperware Sales Force, 1951-1957

  • Subseries C: Speeches to outside groups and Sales Organizations, 1952-1957

  • Subseries D: Tupperware publications, 1949-1966 (not inclusive)

  • Subseries E: Brownie Wise "Idea" files, n.d

  • Subseries F: Publicity, 1951-1957

Series 4: TUPPERWARE HOME PARTIES, ca. 1951-1959. Wise's business activities in the late 1950s and early 1960s as a co-founder and consultant in direct selling cosmetics enterprises also are well documented. Companies include Cinderella (1958-59), and Vivian Woodard (1960-62), Carissa (1963), Aloe Vera (1966-68), Trivera (1967-68), and Sovera (1967-69). Organized files include sales handbooks and dealer/distributor literature written by Wise, correspondence, reports and recommendations for clients, samples of advertising and marketing materials, and sales force newsletters.

Series 5: OTHER DIRECT SALES CONSULTING, ca. 1958-1971. Handbooks, franchise agreements and correspondence document aspects of her work for ABCWare, Vacronware, Artex and others direct sales companies during the 1960s.

Series 6: OTHER BUSINESS VENTURES, ca. 1958-1967. Includes files from several of Wise's late 1950s real estate development ventures, and from the Brownie Wise Sales Success course.

Series 7: PHOTOGRAPHS, ca. 1930-1968.

Includes personal photographs of Brownie Wise at home, travelling, and with her son, but the bulk of the material is comprised of publicity photographs or people and events, primarily for the Tupperware years, but also including some from Sovera and other cosmetics companies for which she consulted.

Series 8: AUDIO RECORDINGS, ca. 1953-1957; 1977; n.d. Includes reel-to reels, 78s, 33 1/3s and one audiocasette of Tupperware Home parties meetings, motivational speeches, and songs.


The collection was donated to the Archives Center, National Museum of American History in March 1994 by Brownie Wise's son, Jerry Wise, of Kissimmee, Florida.

Container List

Box Folder
Series 1:   PERSONAL PAPERS, ca. 1928-1968
1 Robert Wise/Wisco letterhead
2 Labor songs; Wartime Ration Books
3 Travel postcards
4 Income Tax returns, 1943; 1946-1948
5 Withholding Statements, 1951-1956
6 Household inventory, 1950
7-12 Household Expenses, 1950-1956
13 Water's Edge repairs
14 Myles Tupper/Jerry Wise design patent: The Thing, 1952
15 Rosabella Gardens (Jerry Wise's nursery business)
16 Boat expenses
17 Clothing expenses
18 Clothing expenses reimbursed by Tupperware Home Parties
19 Insurance expenses
20 Purchase of Ft. Lauderdale house, 1952
21 Rose Stroud Humphrey purchase of Hollywood house, 1951
22 Death of Rose Stroud Humphrey, 1959
23 Financial documents
24 Legal documents
25 Personal correspondence, 1950-1958
26 European trip postcards, 1954
27 Clippings: lifestyle, personality
28 Clippings: religion
29 Correspondence with Neil Osterweil in re Tupper biography, 1989
30 Correspondence wtih Vic Sussman; newspaper article, 1988
2 1 Child support agreement, 1941
2 Round Robin letter, Fort Lauderdale to Detroit, 1950
3 Dress patterns, 1940s-1950s
32 f/o 1 [High school? Vocational School?] scrapbook, ca. 1928
2 Scrapbook: letters to the Detroit Free Press, ca. 1939
11 Home Edition (1 volume), ca. 1945
4 1 Stanley Home Products, 1947-1948
2 Unit managers training notes, 1948 [Stanley Home Products?]
3 Stanley Home Products catalog, 1958
4-6 Patio Parties
7 Patio Parties: field booking
8-10 Patio Parties: Tupperware accounts
11-12 Patio Parties: The Go-Getter newsletter
13 Patio Parties correspondence: 1950-1951
14 Patio Parties: dealer manual
15 Patio Parties: accounting ledger, n.d.
16-18 Poly-T Parties
19 Poly-T Parties: dealer order forms
5 1 Hibiscus Sales financial statement, 1951
2 Hibiscus Sales franchise contract, 1953
3 Hibiscus Sales correspondence
4 Puerto Rico franchise: Gardenia Sales
5 Puerto Rico correspondence: Santan Orespo
6 Puerto Rico accounting, 1957
7 Puerto Rico invoices, correspondence
8 Puerto Rico dealer: Carmen Romero
9 Puerto Rico dealer: Margo Maldorado
10 Puerto Rico dealer: Lupita Revera
Rose Humphrey business correspondence
2 3 Patio Parties, dealer order forms
4 Hibiscus Sales: Puerto Rico
Series 3: TUPPERWARE HOME PARTIES, ca. 1951-1959

Subseries A: Business Files and Correspondence

2 5 Distributors agreement: Tupperware Home Parties
6 Franchise Agreement: Tupperware Home parties

Tupperware gross sales (at cost to distributors), 1951-1958

6 1 Tupperware contracts
2-5 Personal correspondence re Tupperware
6 Cards from staff
7 Business correspondence
8 THP accounting documents
9 THP accounting documents
10 THP accounts receivable, 1957
11 Tupperware inter-office memos, 1951-1958
12 Correspondence with Earl Tupper, 1954
13 Correspondence with Earl Tupper, 1952, 1957
14 Correspondence with Earl Tupper, 1957
15 Correspondence with Earl Tupper, 1958
7 1-2 Brownie Wise vs. Tupperware Home Parties contract dispute, 1958
3 Legal correspondence in re contract dispute, 1958
4-12 Correspondence, Tupperware Home Parties, 1951-1958 (in re contract dispute)
13 Correspondence in re: Best Wishes, 1958 (in re contract dispute)
8 1 Tupperware organizational chart
2 Tupperware headquarters design sketches, 1952
3 Tupperware manufacturing facility in Cuero, Texas, 1951
4 Tupperware Home Parties employee list, n.d.
5 Tupperware Home Parties business associates list, n.d.
6 Tupperware slogans
7 Tupperware shield
8 Training seminar diploma
9 The Lantern Club
10 Vanguard units
11 Vanguard promotion
12 Fall promotion
13 Tupperware promotions
14 Bulletin material
15 Preview parties
16 Notes for Tupperware demonstrations
17 Dealer training
18 Recruiting
19 Tupperware conferences
20 Notes for conferences
21 Notes for conferences and seminars
22 Notes/ideas for the Sales Sentinel
23 Sales association memberships
24 Awards
25 Salesmanship publications
26 Community activities

Subseries B: Speeches to Tupperware Sales Force

9 1 Welcome address, Tupperware distributors first conference, n.d
2 Welcome address, distributors conference, July 1952
3 Welcome address, distributors conference, January 1953
4 Speeches to managers, 1953
5 Welcome address, 1954
6 Welcome address, Jubilee, April 1955
7 Welcome address, Jubilee 1956
8 Welcome address, distributors, Jubilee 1956
9 Welcome address, Jubilee, 1957
10 Graduation speech, Jubilee 1956
11 correspondence re distributors conference, 1989
12 Welcome address, n.d.
13 Welcome address, distributors, n.d.
14 Welcome address, managers, n.d.
15 Graduation: Ad Astra, Per aspera, n.d.
16 graduation address, n.d.
17 seminar graduation, n.d.
18 managers seminar graduation n.d.
19 Custodian of the Seal, n.d.
20 If I Were a Tupperware Dealer, n.d.
21 The Story of Poly, n.d.
22 The Rose Award, n.d.
23 Tupperware's 5th Birthday
24 As We Walk, n.d.
25 Step by Step Training, n.d.
26 How to Induce Dealers to Work, n.d.
27 Tupperware is the Way, n.d.

Subseries C: Speeches to outside groups and Sales Organizations, 1952-1957

10 1 Ad Club, 1952
2 The Relationship of Field to Management, National Association of Direct Sales Companies, June 3, 1952
3 Junior Chamber of Commerce, July 28, 1952
4 How Tupperware Uses Incentive, Premium Advertisers Association, September 21, 1954
5 Direct Selling Sales Executives Club, May 14, 1954
6 Write Your Own Ticket, Jackson College for Negro Teachers, February 2, 1955
7 Write Your Own Ticket, Central Florida Sales Executives Club, March 16, 1955
8 Boone High School Graduation, 1956
9 Pilot Club, February 28, 1956
10 Boston Sales Executives Club, December 7, 1956
11 YWCA Girls Camp, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, February 1957
12 Tele-Sell New York, March 1957
13 Heart Fund campaign, 1957
14 Tupperware Art Fund, n.d.
15 Let's Make Kissimmee Florida's Frontier Town, n.d.
16 Advertising and Publicity, n.d.

Subseries D: Tupperware publications

11 1 Tupperware ads
2 Tupperware publications: Best Wishes promotional
3 Bulletins
4 Business cards, envelopes, letterhead
5 Cards, announcements
6 Catalogs, 1949-1966
7 Children's Parties; Gift Wrapping Can Be Fun
8 Dealer/manager information
9 Hostess information
10 Headquarters brochures, postcard
11 Jubilee program, 1954
12 Recipe cards
13 Lamplighter, 1955-1956
14 Tupperware Know How
15 Public Relations News, 1954
16 distributors conference programs, 1952-55
12 1 Best Wishes (2 copies)
2 Best Wishes correspondence
13 f/o Tupperware Sales Sentinel, 1956 - 1959
14 f/o Tupperware Sparks, 1951 -1957

Subseries E: Brownie Wise "Idea" files, n.d

15 1 Appreciation
2 Birthdays
3 Dating
4 Discontent
5 Decisions
6 Easter
7 Energy
8 Enthusiasm
9 Failure
10-11 Faith
12 Faith-Fear
13 Fear
14 Four dreams
15 Getting vs. Giving
16 Giving
17 Golas
18 Growth
19 Guilt
20 Happiness
21 A House Without Books
22 Imagination
23 Independence/Interdependence
24 Inferiority
25 Keeping it Simple
26 Kindness
27 Leadership
28 Learn Don't Lean
29 Pay for Your Room on Earth
30 Poems
31 Public Speaking
32 Quotations
33 Quotations from the Bible
34 Recognition
16 1 Salesmanship
2 Songs
3 Speeches for Every Occasion
4 Success
5-7 Talk Material
8 Training
9 Use
10 Wishing
11 Notes/Ideas

Subseries F: Publicity, 1951-1957

17 1 Public Relations Scrapbook: November 1951-February 1953
2 Public Relations Scrapbook: May-August 1953
3 Public Relations Scrapbook: August - December 1953
4 Public Relations Scrapbook: January - March 1954
5 Public Relations Scrapbook: April - August, 1954
6 Public Relations Scrapbook: August 1954- January 1955
7 Public Relations Scrapbook: January - April 1955
Public Relations Scrapbook: January - May 1954
18 2 Public Relations Scrapbook: June - July 1954
3 Public Relations Scrapbook: August - October 1954
4 Public Relations Scrapbook: November - December 1954
5 Public Relations Scrapbook: January - February 1955
6 Public Relations Scrapbook: March - November 1955
7 Public Relations Scrapbook: January - June 1956
8 Public Relations Scrapbook: July 1956 - January 1957
8 Public Relations Scrapbook
19 1 loose newsclippings, 1952-53
2 loose newsclippings, 1954
3-4 loose newsclippings, 1955
5 loose newsclippings, 1955-57
6 loose newsclipppings, n.d.
22 f/o oversized loose newsclippings
20 1 publicity reprints, ca. 1951-1955
21 f/o oversized publicity reprints, ca. 1951-55
31 f/o oversized dealer literature, 1951
Series 4: TUPPERWARE HOME PARTIES, ca. 1951-1959
2 8 Franchise Agreement: Vivianne Woodard
9 Franchise Agreement: Blanchette
10 Franchise Agreement: Carissa
23 1 Aloe Vera Company distribution program, 1966
2 Aloe Vera Company franchise agreement, 1966
3 Aloe Vera Company correspondence, 1966-67
4 Aloe Vera Company financial analysis
5 Aloe Vera Company brochures, 1966-67
6 Aloe Vera Company product names and ideas, 1967
7 Aloe Vera Company product claims, 1967-68
8 Aloe Vera Company history and qualities of aloe, n.d.
23 9 Trivera distribution agreement, 1967
10 Trivera distribution manual - draft, 1967
11 Trivera company summary, 1967very
12 Trivera correspondence, 1967-1968
13-14 competitors cosmetic ads, n.d.
24 1 "Sovera Story", 1966
2 "Sovera Creed", n.d.
3 Sovera distributors information, 1967-69
4 Sovera consultants information, 1969
5 Sovera dealer interview
6 Sovera hostess information, 1969
7 Sovera product information, 1967-69
8 Sovera Creme Cleanser, 1969
9 Sovera Day Moisturizer, 1969
10 Sovera Eye Gel, 1967
11 Sovera Eyeliner
12 Sovera Facial masque, 1967
13 Sovera lipstick
14 Sovera Night Treat, 1969
15 Sovera Skin Tone
16 Sovera Super Gel, 1967
17 Sovera Demonstration, 1968-69
18 Sovera Price lists, 1968
19 Sovera Personnel, 1968
24 20 Sovera correspondence, 1968
25 1 Trevera correspondence, 1966-67
2 Trevera correspondence, 1968
3 Sovera correspondence, 1967
4 Sovera correpondence, 1968 (Jan-June)
5 Sovera correspondence, 1968 (July-Dec)
6 Sovera correspondence, 1969
7 Cosmetics correspondence, 1958-68
26 1 Cinderella correspondence, 1958-59
2 Cinderella publicity, 1958
3 Cinderella dealer iterature, 1958-59
4 Cinderella distributors conference, 1959
5 Cinderella dealer manual, n.d.
6 Viviane Woodard consultants kits, 1960
7 Viviane Woodard promotional literature, 1961
8 Viviane Woodard catalogs, 1962
9 Viviane Woodard welcome addess, n.d.
10 Carissa sales directors seminar, n.d.
11 Carissa Press releases, 1963
12 Carissa "Beauty advisor", 1963
13 Carissa scripts, n.d.
14 Carissa Sales directors seminar, n.d.
15 Miscellaneous, n.d.
Cinderella conference programs
Vivianne Woodard catalogs
Vivianne Woodard consultants kit
Vivianne Woodard welcome address
Vivianne Woodard publication: Sales Palette, 1960-62
31 f/o 2 Coach Line, August 1958-May 1959 [Cinderella sales force newsletter]
3 Sales Palette, 1960-1962 [Vivian Woodard sales force newsletter]

Series 5: OTHER DIRECT SALES CONSULTING, ca. 1958-1971
2 11 Franchise Agreement: ABCWare
12 Franchise Agreement: Vacronware
27 1 Artex catalogs, sales literature, 1969-1971
2 Artex correspondence, 1969-1970
3 Artex instructor training manual, n.d.
4 Artex lesson plans, n.d.
5 Beeline fashions recording, n.d.
6 Daggett & Ramsdell distributors manual, 1962
7 Pathway Products correspondence, manual dratfs, ca. 1968
8 Pathway Products "creative dating", n.d.
9 Vacronware, notes for dealer manual, n.d.
10 Vacronware, draft distributors manual, n.d.
11 notes for distributors manuals, various, n.d.
12 Notes for dealers manuals, various, n.d.
13 Notes for writing catalogs, descriptive literature, n.d.
14 Notes for Crest Club
Series 6: OTHER BUSINESS VENTURES, ca. 1958-1967
12 2-3 Brownie Wise Sales Success Course, 1958
4 Brownie Wise Developments, 1958
5 Brownie Wise and Charles McBurney Associates, 1958
6 Florida Real Estate Ventures, 1967
Series 7: PHOTOGRAPHS, ca. 1930-1968
28 1 Brownie Wise, ca. 1930-1945
2 Brownie and Jerry Wise
3 Waters Edge (BW's Kissimmee mansion), ca. 1951-1958
4 Kissimmee house, ca. 1965
5 Brownie Wise, ca. 1967-68
29 1 Brownie Wise/Tupperware, ca. 1948-1951
2 Farnumsville, Mass. mfg. facility -- interior views
3 Orlando, Fl. headquarters
4 Tupperware Trips
5 Tupperware Rose silverplate pattern
6 Best Wishes/The Wish Fairy
7 Christmas
8 Consulting ventures, 1960s
9 Sovera manufacturing, 1960s
10 Consulting ventures, 1960s (snapshots)
11 Brownie Wise publicity shots
12 Brownie Wise publicity shots
30 1-8 Tupperware events
9-10 negatives
11 proofs
31 f/o 4 oversized photographs

Series 8: AUDIO RECORDINGS, ca. 1953-1957; 1977; n.d.

Subseries A: reel to reel recordings, 1953, n.d.

[titles appear as they appear on original labels]

33 1 Rose Humphrey #1 conference
2 Humphrey- 4 Thurs - recruiting and booking
3 Rose Humphrey
4 Humphrey - Gary - Brownie - Fledd
5 #3 Tupperware
6 Humphrey 7-3-1953
7 Humphrey
8 Brownie - distribution - hostess gift 7-3-1953
9 Humphrey - Sunday
10 Rose and Rosealley
11 Humphrey - Jack Marshall - Brownie Wise
12 Humphrey - Sat. P.M.
13 last Sunday
14 no label
15 no box, no label

Subseries B: 78 rpm recordings, 1956-1957, n.d.

[titles appear as they appear on original labels]

34 1 Red Carpet Campaign, nos. 2-7, n.d.
2 Hitch Your Wagon To A Star, 1956
3 Opp-Hop Message, 1956
4 Jubilee Movie Preview, 1957
5 Brownie Wise Announces McCalls Magazine Article, n.d.
6 Merry Christmas Brownie, from THP, Jack and Helen
7 A Personal Message from Brownie to Rose, n.d.
8 Announcing the Lamplighters, 1956
9 Seasons Greetings from Brownie Wise, 1956 (2 copies)
10-12 unlabelled (3 78 rpm recordings)

Subseries B: 33 1/3 rpm and audiocasette recordings

[titles appear as they appear on original labels]

1 A Hunting We Will Go [side A]; Fox Hunt sound effects [side B], n.d.
2 We've Got the Spirit - "Add extra enthusiasm to your fall and winter assemblies with this album of spirited songs, beginning with an all-new versin of "We've Got the Spirit, three college fight songs, and the theme song for 1977."
3 The Company of Friends, n.d.


Revised: December 20, 2001