A | More | Perfect | Union --  Japanese Americans and the U.S. Constitution
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By 1946, Japanese Americans were released from the internment camps, but the injustice of the war years was not forgotten. Many members of the Japanese American community were determined to create a public understanding of the injustices they had suffered and to resolve the basic Constitutional issues related to their wartime incarceration. More than forty years after internment, the U.S. government finally acknowledged its wrongs with a formal apology to the Japanese American community, and passage of the Civil Liberties Act in 1988.

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Post War

On December 17, 1944, Public Proclamation Number 21 ended the mass imprisonment... More
Court Cases

Four major court cases testing the constitutionality of wartime treatment of Japanese American citizens reached the U.S. Supreme Court in 1943 and 1944...More
Apologies and Redress

In addition to seeking to correct justice in the courts, Japanese Americans sought legislative redress for the injustice, hardships, and suffering... More
Repairing the Constitution

...The Constitution of the United States remains the most successful frame of government ever devised-and continues to be interpreted and amended based on the will of the people... More
Japanese Americans Today

The wartime experience of Americans of Japanese ancestry holds important lessons for all Americans... More

Smithsonian - National Museum of American History - Behring Center