A | More | Perfect | Union --  Japanese Americans and the U.S. Constitution
The Japanese American ExperienceReflectionsCollection SearchResourcesCredits

Curator Statement

Historical Overview

Touring Exhibit

Classroom Activity 1

Classroom Activity 2


Web Links



Web Links
Museums and Archives
Civil Liberties and Redress
Asian American Resources


Smithsonian Institution Asian Pacific American Program

The Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Program provides vision, leadership and support for all Asian Pacific American (APA) activities at the Smithsonian while at the same time, serving as liaison to APA communities.

Angel Island Immigration Station Foundation

Angel Island Immigration Station Foundation is a non-profit organization whose primary goals are to lead the effort to preserve, restore and interpret Angel Island Immigration Station, a National Historic Landmark, as the Pacific gateway for U.S. immigration; and to promote educational activities that further the understanding of Pacific Rim immigration in American history.

Japanese American Citizen’s League

The Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) is a membership organization whose mission is to secure and maintain the human and civil rights of Americans of Japanese ancestry and others victimized by injustice. The JACL has 112 chapters nationwide and eight regional districts with over 24,000 members found in twenty-three states. In addition to its national headquarters in San Francisco, the JACL has five regional offices (Los Angeles, Fresno, San Francisco, Seattle, Chicago), as well as an office in Washington D.C. and an organizational newspaper, the Pacific Citizen, distributed nationally from its office in Los Angeles. In addition to legislative efforts, the organization offers educational scholarships, and has developed a curriculum and resource guide that has been adopted by the California school system and is available for purchase.

National Japanese American Memorial Foundation

Construction of the National Japanese American Memorial on Federal land was authorized by statute (PL 102-502) and signed into law by President George Bush on October 24, 1992. Initially intended to commemorate Japanese American War veterans, the purpose has been extended to honor the patriotism of all Japanese Americans During World War II. The project for the Memorial was initiated in 1988 by the "Go For Broke" National Veterans Association Foundation. With the expanded scope of the project, the Foundation has been renamed as the National Japanese American Memorial Foundation.

National Japanese American Historical Society

The National Japanese American Historical Society (NJAHS), founded in 1980 in San Francisco, is a non-profit membership supported organization dedicated to the preservation, promotion, and dissemination of materials relating to the history and culture of Japanese Americans.



Japanese American Documentary Collection, National Museum of American History

The collections of the American History Archives Center complement the Museum's artifacts and are used for scholarly research, exhibitions, journalism, documentary productions, school programs, and other research and educational activities.

Asian American Studies Center, UCLA

Since its founding in 1969, the UCLA Asian American Studies Center has documented, analyzed, and forecasted the contemporary, historical, and future experiences and concerns of people of Asian and Pacific Islander heritage in the United States through an array of scholarly, policy-oriented, applied, and creative forms of inquiry. It fulfills this mission through sponsored research projects; the development of affiliated research institutes; support for individual faculty members; collaborative research and creative projects with campus and community organizations, museums, and leaders; publications and other media; archival and data-collection activities; and the training of new scholars, policy analysts, and creative artists.

Bishop Museum

Bishop Museum is the premier natural and cultural history institution in the Pacific and is recognized throughout the world for its cultural collections, research projects, consulting services and public educational programs. It also has one of the largest natural history specimen collections in the world. As the largest museum in the state, Bishop Museum hosts over 500,000 visitors each year who experience over 2,000 years of history and cultural heritage, from early Polynesian migration and settlement to space exploration.

Japanese American Digital Archive

A core component of the California Digital Library, the Online Archive of California (OAC) is a digital information resource that facilitates and provides access to materials such as manuscripts, photographs, and works of art held in libraries, museums, archives, and other institutions across California.

Japanese American National Museum

The mission of the Japanese American National Museum is to make known the Japanese American experience as an integral part of our nation's heritage in order to improve understanding and appreciation for America's ethnic and cultural diversity.

Manabi and Sumi Hirasaki National Resource Center

The mission of the Hirasaki National Resource Center at the Japanese American National Museum is to provide access to the Museum's diverse collections related to Japanese Americans. The National Resource Center develops a collection of secondary materials that document the Japanese American experience. Access is provided not only to this reference collection, but also to the Museum's collections (primary materials) and to the institutional archives. Because education is a life-long pursuit, the Hirasaki National Resource Center is committed to providing service to all ages and skill levels.

National Archives and Records Administration

NARA makes available to the public the historically valuable records of the three branches of federal government: executive (including the President), legislative, and judicial. National Archives holdings include textual; audiovisual; cartographic and architectural; and electronic records. Records pertaining to the War Relocation Authority can be found in Record Group 210.
Transcript of the Constitution: http://www.nara.gov/exhall/charters/constitution/conmain.html

Library of Congress

The Library of Congress, established in 1800 serves as the research arm of Congress and is recognized as the national library of the United States. Its collections comprise the world's most comprehensive record of human creativity and knowledge. Open to those above high school age without charge or special permission, it is the world's largest library and a great resource to scholars and researchers.
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs (P&P) Online Catalog:

Wing Luke Asian Museum

A pan-Asian Pacific American Museum devoted to the collection, preservation and display of Asian Pacific American culture, history and art, the museum’s programs are inspired and created by the combined efforts of museum professionals and grassroots community members. The Wing Luke Asian Museum is a multidisciplinary cultural center that presents arts and heritage exhibitions, public programs, school tours, publications, and films, and maintains a permanent collection and research center.

Densho: The Japanese American Legacy Project

The Densho Project is a non-profit educational organization that preserves historical first-person accounts, photographs and documents in a digital archive. Digitally videotaped oral history interviews include personal experiences of immigration, family life, mass incarceration of Japanese Americans by their government during World War II, efforts to obtain redress for the denial of civil rights, and many other topics. This resource links past and present by providing primary and secondary source material on Japanese American experiences, as part of American history. The Densho Project works to educate future generations, collaborating with teachers and students in communities nationwide, preserving history, and inspiring people to act with respect, compassion and fairness.



U.S. Department of Justice Civil Liberties Division

The Office of Redress Administration (ORA) was established to identify, locate and pay these individuals. ORA officially closed on February 5, 1999. This serves as an informational site regarding the final statistics of ORA and the settlement of the Japanese American lawsuit, Mochizuki v. United States.



Go For Broke Educational Foundation
a division of the 100th/442nd/MIS WWII Memorial Foundation

Incorporated in 1989, the 100th/442nd/MIS WWII Memorial Foundation was established by Japanese American World War II veterans to build the Go For Broke Monument as an eternal tribute to the heroics of the segregated Japanese American units. The Monument, located in Downtown Los Angeles at Temple Avenue and Alameda, was unveiled in June 1999 and presented as a gift to the City of Los Angeles. With the Go For Broke Monument built, the Foundation is establishing itself with a new vision and mission as the “Go For Broke Educational Foundation.” The Foundation’s educational programs expose students and teachers to the involvement of Japanese American soldiers in World War II, the Japanese American internment and the civil liberties issues raised by these events. To date, the Foundation has set up several programs including: teacher training workshops, Hanashi Oral History Program, and several media projects.

Asian American Curriculum Project

The mission of the Asian American Curriculum Project is to educate the public about the great diversity of the Asian American experience by distributing books that foster cultural awareness and to educate Asian Americans about their own heritage. AACP believes that the knowledge which comes from the use of appropriate materials can accomplish these goals. The books and other materials are for all age groups, all levels of education and all Asian ethnic groups; including and not limited to Cambodian, Chinese, Filipino, Hmong, Indian, Japanese, Korean, Laotian, Samoan, Tongan, Thai, & Vietnamese Americans and Hawaiians. Materials include literature, folk tales, posters, magazine, tapes on language and music, games, activities, teachers’ guides, dictionaries, bilingual materials and reference books on history, social issues and education.

Heyday Books

Heyday Books is dedicated to producing high-quality, accessible books about California. Founded in 1974 by Malcolm Margolin, Heyday has maintained a highly-respected list of titles covering California history and culture, natural history, literature, poetry, regional guides, and California Native American life for over 25 years.

Michael Yamashita, Inc.

Yamashita began taking pictures in 1971 while on a self-styled "roots" trip to Japan. What began as a pastime led to a career combining his two passions—photography and travel. He has been a regular contributor to the National Geographic since 1979 and has worked in such diverse locations as Somalia and Sudan, England and Ireland, New Guinea and New Jersey. Although he has traveled to six continents, Asia is his special area of concentration. He has lived in Singapore, Thailand, Hong Kong and Japan, and shoots for a variety of Asian publications. Fluent in Japanese, he has covered Japan from Hokkaido to Kyushu.


Smithsonian - National Museum of American History - Behring Center